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    Living things are those objects that have life e.g. plant and animals. Non-living things are those objects without life or lifeless objects.



    1. MOVEMENT: is defined as the ability of a living organism to move its own body or part of its body from one place to another. Living things move for the following reasons:

    – To look for food

    – To run away from danger

    – To seek mate in time of reproduction

    – To respond to external stimuli

    1. NUTRITION: is defined as the ability of living organism to feed to enable them living to be able to carry out life functions such as growth, respiration and reproduction. Living things use two method of nutrition
    • Autotrophic/halophytic nutrition: It is a method used by all green plants and some bacteria which involve manufacturing of their own food from simple inorganic compound through a process of photosynthesis.
    • Heterotrophic/holozoic nutrition: it is a method strictly used by animals to obtain food from the product of plant. They depend on the food produced by plant directly or indirectly since they cannot manufacture theirs.
    1. RESPIRATION: is defined as a process in which food substances within cell of living organism is oxidized in the presence of oxygen to release energy for all life process
    2. EXCRETION: This is defined as the removal of poisonous metabolic waste products from the body or cells of living organism if not excreted will damage the body cells. Metabolism is the sum total of the chemical processes which take place within the cells of the body of the organisms.
    3. GROWTH: is defined as a permanent increase in body and mass of an organism or increase in body complexity as a result of cell division and cell differentiation. Good feeding will enhance increase in body mass.
    4. IRRITABILITY/SENSITIVITY: is defined as the ability of an organism to respond to changes in both internal and external stimuli to include: heat, light, pain, water, sound and chemical substances to which living things respond to.
    5. REPRODUCTION: This is the ability of living organisms to give rise to new offsprings which have the same characteristics as their parents. Reproduction ensures continuity of the species.


    1. Sexual reproduction: This involves two organisms of the same species to produce a new offspring
    2. Asexual reproduction: It involves only one organism to produce another offspring of their kind.
    3. ADAPTATION: is defined as the way in which living organism get used to their various environment in such a manner that they are comfortable in order to survive.
    4. COMPETITION: This is the ability of living things to struggle for all the necessities of life in order to survive in their various environment. Living things compete for food, light, space, water, mates etc. in order to survive and be in continuous existence.
    5. DEATH: All living things must die because they have a definite and limited period of existence.

    Differences Between Plants and Animals

    Plants                                                                    Animals


    1. Plant growth in indefinite and apical Animal growth is definite and interacting meaning

    it occurs uniformly in their body

    1. Plant has a slow response to external  Animal shows a fast response to external stimuli


    1. Plant stores food as starch except in Animal stores food as glycogen


    1. Plant has no specialized sense organs  Animal has specialized sense organ
    2. Plant has no fixed number of parts, Animal has fixed number of parts which are usually

    Always continue                                                    compact.

    1. Gaseous exchange in plant is through Gaseous exchange is through special organ

    the entire body

    1. Plant cell has a rigid cellulose all wall  Animal cell has a flexible living cell          membrane
    2. Plant cell has large vacuole containing Animal cell has small or no vacuole


    1. Plant feed autotrophic ally Animal feeds heterotrophic ally
    2. Plant processes no special excretory Animal possesses well developed     excretorysystem



    Microscope (Parts and function)

    A Microscope is an instrument used to view or magnify organisms smaller that 0.001mm which cannot be seen by human naked eyes. A microscope is made of the following parts.


    (i)         Eye piece lens or ocular (x10) is used for viewing a magnified object.

    (ii)        Body tube: It provides attachment to eyepiece and revolving nose piece

    (iii)       Revolving nose piece is used for selecting objective lenses to be used and to be in line with the eyepiece

    (a).       Low power objective lens(x4) is used for the lowest magnification of an object

    (b)        Medium power objective lens (x10) it magnifies object more than low power objective lens

    (c)        High power objective lens (x40). It is used for the highest magnification of object for minute detail

    (iv)       Coarse focus knob: it is used for focusing an object at low power

    (v)        Fine adjustment knob: it is used for focusing object at medium and high power magnification so that object is sharper at focus

    (vi)       Arm  is used for lifting or carrying the microscope

    (vii)      Stage: is for displaying slide and specimens under focus

    (a)        Clips: are the stage for holding glass slide on the stage

    (b)        Hole: is present on the stage for light source to the viewing object

    (viii)     Condenser: it is used to regulate the amount of light rays entering the microscope and object

    (ix)       Mirror: it is used for collecting light rays and directing them to the condenser and object.

    (x)        Base of the microscope- is for balancing it on the table




    1. Which of the following groups embraces the rest?

    (a) Class        (b) Kingdom       (c) Phylum        (d) Species

    1. Which of the following characteristics is not possessed by most plants? Ability to

    (a) move away from stimuli    (b) respire     (c) reproduce     (d) adapt to the environment

    1. Carbohydrates are stored in animal cells in form of (a) starch     (b) glycogen

    (c) maltose       (d) plastids

    1. All living organisms (a) photosynthesis      (b) respire      (c) move   (d) transpire


    (5)        State five differences between plant and animal


    See also






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