Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), also known as Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) or Venereal Diseases (VD) are diseases that are passed on from one person to another through sexual contact, and sometimes by genital contact – the infection can be passed on via vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex.


Modes of transmission

  • use of unsterilized IV drug needles,
  • from mother to baby during childbirth or breastfeeding, and
  • blood transfusions.
  • When using unsterilized skill piercing instruments, e.g. needles, syringe razor blades, circumcision and other skin piercing instruments.



The effects of STIs are: Chlamydia, Chancroid, Crabs (Pubic Lice), Genital herpes, Genital warts, Hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS, Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Trichomoniasis (parasitic infection), Molluscum Contagiosum, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), Scabies, Syphilis, gonorrhea, Trichomoniasis (Trich), Yeast infections



  1. What are STIs?
  2. Mention four ways by which STIs can be transmitted.



Have “safe sex” – for each sexual act, use a new latex condom, whether it be oral, vaginal or anal sex. Avoid using an oil-based lubricant, such as petroleum jelly when using a latex condom. Non-barrier forms of contraception do nothing to protect people from sexually transmitted infections. Examples include oral contraceptives or intrauterine devices.

  • Using a condom is one of the best methods of STI prevention.
  • Abstain – abstaining from any sexual act is probably the most effective way to avoid becoming infected with an STI.
  • Be faithful to one uninfected partner – be in a long-term relationship with a person who is not infected, and remain faithful.
  • Vaccinations – there are vaccinations which can protect from eventually developing some types of cancer caused by two STIs – the HPV (human papilloma virus) and Hepatitis B vaccines.
  • Check for infections – before sexual intercourse with a new partner, check that the partner and yourself have no STIs.
  • Drink alcohol in moderation – people who are drunk are more likely to engage in risky behavior. Avoid using some recreational drugs which may also affect judgment.
  • Explain you want safe sex – before engaging in any sexual act with a new partner, make it clear that you would only consider safe sex.
  • Education – parents and schools need to teach children about the importance of safe sex, and explain how to prevent becoming infected with an STI. This should also include explaining that the safest protection is to wait to have sex.



  1. Mention five ways by which STIs can be controlled
  2. Explain education as a means of controlling STIs



  1. One of the ways to avoid STI is ——–
  2. Abstain from sex B. Human immnodestroying virus C. Human immunodeficiency virus D. keeping to sex.
  3. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) is also known as ———-
  4. Venereal Diseases B. plasmodium C. kissing D. Human immnodestroying virus
  5. STI means ———–
  6. Sexually Transmitted Infections B. acquired immune deficiency sickness C. acquired immune deficiency system D. none
  7. STIs can be transmitted through the following ways except
  8. during kissing B. during sexual intercourse   C. sweat D. none
  9. Which of the following body fluids does not transmit STIs?
  10. semen B. sweat   C. maternal milk D.  during sexual intercourse



  1. Mention three ways of preventing STIs.
  2. Mention four ways through which STIs can be transmitted


See also:





Water and Chemical Pollution

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