Biology

Biology

MEANING AND SIGNIFICANCE OF RESPIRATION

MEANING AND SIGNIFICANCE OF RESPIRATION Respiration is the process by which energy is liberated from organic compounds such as glucose. It is one of the most important characteristics of living organisms. Energy is expended (used) whenever an organism exhibits characteristics of life, such as feeding, excretion and movement. Respiration occurs all the time and if […]

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Biology

ALLERGIC REACTIONS

ALLERGIC REACTIONS An allergy is a hypersensitive reaction to an antigen by the body. The antibody reacts with the antigen violently. People with allergies are oversensitive to foreign materials like dust, pollen grains, some foods, some drugs and some air pollutants. Allergic reactions lead to production of histamine by the body. Histamine causes swelling and

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Biology

IMPORTANCE OF VACCINATION

IMPORTANCE OF VACCINATION A vaccine is made of attenuated, dead or non¬virulent micro-organism that stimulate cells in the immune system to recognise and attack disease causing agent through production of antibodies. Vaccination protects individuals from infections of many diseases like smallpox, tuberculosis and poliomyelitis. Diseases like smallpox, tuberculosis and tetanus were killer diseases but this

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Biology

ABO BLOOD GROUPS

ABO BLOOD GROUPS There are four types of blood groups in human beings: A, B, AB and O. These are based on types of proteins on the cell membrane of red blood cells. There are two types of proteins denoted by the letters A and B which are antigens. In the plasma are antibodies specific

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Biology

IMMUNE RESPONSES

IMMUNE RESPONSES Immune response is the production of antibodies in response to antigens. An antigen is any foreign material or organism that is introduced into the body and causes the production of antibodies. Antigens are protein in nature. An antibody is a protein whose structure is complementary to the antigen. This means that a specific

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Biology

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF BLOOD

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF BLOOD Composition of Blood The mammalian blood is made up of fluid medium called plasma with substances dissolved in it. Cellular components suspended in plasma include; Erythrocytes (red blood cells), Leucocytes (white blood cells) Thrombocytes (platelets) Blood proteins.   Plasma This is a pale yellow fluid consisting of 90% water. There

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