Geography

Geography

BUSH FALLOWING IN WEST AFRICA

Bush fallowing is a system of farming or the cultivation of one piece of land for some years before the farmer leaves the piece of land to cultivate another in order to allow the former to regain lost nutrients.   Favourable Conditions Necessary for Bush Fallowing (i)        Abundance of large area of farmlands. (ii)       Low […]

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Geography

MINING

Process of extracting valuable minerals from the earth’s surface. Formations in Which Minerals Occur Veins and Lodes – Occurrence of minerals in crevices, cracks or faults in igneous rocks. They are said to occur in veins if they occur there in small quantities. Said to occur in lodes if they occur there in large quantities

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Geography

MINERALS IN EAST AFRICA

Phosphates used in the manufacture of fertiliser-Tororo in Uganda and Majingu Hill in Tanzania. Limestone used in cement manufacturing-Hima in N.W Uganda, Tanga in Tanzania, Athi River and Bamburi in Kenya. Fluorspar a source of fluorine used in chemical industries-Kerio Valley in Kenya. Common salt used for consumption-Kilifi and Magadi in Kenya and L. Kitwe

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Geography

PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN FIELD WORK

PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN FIELD WORK  Language Barrier -Inability to communicate due to the interviewer and the respondent not sharing the same language or respondents may be illiterate and thus unable to fill questionnaire. The problems are: Data may not be collected Illiterate people may give wrong answers while attempting questionnaires An interpreter may have to

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Geography

MINERALS AND ROCKS

MINERALS AND ROCKS  Minerals – Inorganic substances occurring naturally at or below the earth’s surface.   Characteristics of Minerals Different degrees of hardness e.g. some are very hard e.g. diamond while others are very soft e.g. talc. Some have atoms arranged in an orderly manner to form crystals e.g. quartz form a 6- sided prism.

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Geography

FIELD WORK

FIELD WORK  Scientific study of geography using the environment as a laboratory or source of information. Types of Field Work Field Excursion -Visiting an area near or far from the school to see geographical phenomena then note down and discuss later in class. Aim a) Reinforce what has been learnt in class b) Gain more

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Geography

Analysis of Data

Analysis of Data  Examining the numerical figures in detail. Techniques of analysing Data Calculation of Percentages -If in the study of a farm 10 hectares are devoted to coffee, what is the % of the area under coffee? 10/100×10% The table below shows the number of tourists who visited Kenya from various parts of the

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Geography

METHODS OF RECORDING DATA

METHODS OF RECORDING DATA  Methods of storing information to avoid losing it. Note Taking -Writing in a note book what is being observed, answers during interviews and then notes are compiled in school or office when writing report. Filling In Questionnaires -Filling answers in questionnaires which are responses from a respondent by an interviewer or

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Geography

SAMPLING AND EXPERIMENTATION

SAMPLING AND EXPERIMENTATION  Sampling is examining by taking a sample -a part representing the whole (population). Types of Sampling Random Sampling – Selection of members of a group haphazardly where every item has an equal chance of being selected e.g. to select 5 students to go for a tour from a class: Class members write

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Geography

STATISTICAL DATA

STATISTICAL DATA  Discrete Data -Which is given in whole numbers e.g. 16 elephants 1093 tonnes of wheat Continuous Data – Facts and figures which can take any value e.g. Fractions e.g.23 ¼ Decimals e.g. 6.20 mm Values within range e.g. 0-30◦c Grouped Data – Which is non precise/exact but values range in groups e.g.  

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Geography

METHODS OF COLLECTING DATA

METHODS OF COLLECTING DATA (STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES)  Observation -Use of eyes to observe features or weather then information is recorded immediately e.g. cloud cover, rocks, soil, land forms, vegetation, etc. Advantages Gives 1st hand information which is reliable. Relevant material to the study is collected. Time saving since one doesn’t have to look for data in many

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Geography

STATISTICS

STATISTICS  Statistics – numerical figures collected systematically and arranged for a particular purpose. Statistical data-information presented inform of numbers e.g. No. of students in a school Mean daily temperature of a place Amount of milk produced daily from a farm Amount of money earned from exports annually. Statistical methods-techniques of collecting, recording, analyzing, presenting and interpreting

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Geography

PRESSURE SYSTEMS IN THE WORLD

PRESSURE SYSTEMS IN THE WORLD  Cyclone It’s a low pressure system characterised by low pressure at the centre and increases outwards. Starts in areas where air ascends from the ground to the atmosphere and descends at high altitude. It’s of two types. Tropical cyclones e.g. hurricane, typhoon and willy willies and depressions which are characterised

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Geography

CLOUDS

CLOUDS  Are a mass of tiny droplets or ice particles formed when water vapour condenses. Three Cloud Forms Cirroform -Thin and wispy clouds composed of ice crystals. stratiform -Appear as greyish sheets covering most of the sky and are rarely broken into units. Cumuliform -Are massive rounded with a flat base and limited horizontal extent

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Geography

AIR MASSES

AIR MASSES  Distinct large parcels of air moving in one direction – Originate from areas of uniform weather and topography from where they derive their characteristics e.g. flat areas, forests, deserts, and snow covered areas.   Characteristics of Air Masses A large volume of air. Covers an extensive area. Has uniform temperature and humidity. Distinct

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Geography

MIST AND FOG

MIST AND FOG  Mist and fog are a mass of tiny water droplets suspended in the lower layers of the atmosphere. Fog is denser than mist i.e. has more moisture. Both hinder visibility although fog reduces visibility to less than a kilometre. When fog mixes with smoke its called smog. How They Form Moist air

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Geography

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE  Factors Influencing Atmospheric Pressure Altitude Pressure decreases with increase in altitude because the column of air becomes shorter hence it exerts less weight. Temperature When air is heated it expands and exerts pressure over a large area resulting in reduced pressure. When it’s cooled it contracts and exerts pressure over a small area

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Geography

TYPES OF RAINFALL

Relief/Orographic/Mountain rainfall Rain experienced on the windward slopes of mountains or hills formed when moist air is forced to rise over a mountain or a hill. How it Forms Moist air is forced to rise over a hill or mountain. The temperature and air pressure decreases making it to expand. Air cools due to decreased

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Geography

SIGNIFICANCE OF HUMIDITY OR MOISTURE

Affects rain formation in such as way that places with high humidity are likely to experience higher rainfall than those with low humidity. Regulates the heat loss from the earth’s surface by absorbing terrestrial radiation (process in which the earth gives off heat into the atmosphere). It affects sensible temperature in that the higher the

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