A window is an opening in a wall, door, roof or vehicle that allows the passage of light, sound, and air. Modern windows are usually glazed or covered in some other transparent or translucent material, a sash set in a frame[1] in the opening; the sash and frame are also referred to as a window.[2] Many glazed windows may be opened, to allow ventilation, or closed, to exclude inclement weather. Windows often have a latch or similar mechanism to lock the window shut or to hold it open by various amounts.

Types include the eyebrow window, fixed windows, single-hung and double-hung sash windows, horizontal sliding sash windows, casement windows, awning windows, hopper windows, tilt and slide windows (often door-sized), tilt and turn windows, transom windows, sidelight windows, jalousie or louvered windows, clerestory windows, skylights, roof windows, roof lanterns, bay windows, oriel windows, thermal, or Diocletian, windows, picture windows, emergency exit windows, stained glass windows, French windows, panel windows, and double – and triple paned windows.

The Romans were the first known to use glass for windows, a technology likely first produced in Roman Egypt, in Alexandria ca. 100 AD. Paper windows were economical and widely used in ancient China, Korea and Japan. In England, glass became common in the windows of ordinary homes only in the early 17th century whereas windows made up of panes of flattened animal horn were used as early as the 14th century. In the 19th century American west, greased paper windows came to be used by itinerant groups. Modern-style floor-to-ceiling windows became possible only after the industrial plate glass making processes were fully perfected.

Doors and windows – Building Construction

1. Semester : 3rd Year : 2nd Bachelor of Engineering (BE) CIVIL ENGINEERING Subject : Building Construction Gujarat Technological University (GTU) Crating By : ASHISH VASAVA

2.  DOORS AND WINDOWS§  Topicsü  Figuresü

3. • Definition and function • Location of door in a building • Components of a door • Sizes of doors • Door frames • Technical terms • Types of doors • Recommended Dimension for windows • Types of windows • Fixtures and Fastening 1. Hinges 2. Bolts 3. Handles 4. Locks  Topicsü

4.  Definition and Functionü • Definition of door : – A door may be defined as “an open able barrier or as a framework of wood, steel , aluminum, glass or a combination of these materials secured in a wall opening”. • Function of door : – It is provided to give access to the inside of a room of a building. – It serves as a connecting link between the various internal portion of building. – Lighting and ventilation of rooms. – They admit ventilation and light. – Controls the physical atmosphere within a space by enclosing it, excluding air drafts, so that interiors may be more effectively heated or cooled. – They act as a barrier to noise. – Used to screen areas of a building for aesthetic purposes, keeping formal and utility areas separate.

5.  Location of door in a buildingü • The number should be kept as minimum. • It should meet the functional requirement. • It should preferably be located at the corner of the room, nearly 20 cm from corner. • If in a room, more than 2 doors are there, they shall be located facing each other.

6.  Components of a door:§ a) Door frame b) Door shutter Door frame HEAD JAMB/POST HOLDFAST F.L. HORN REBATE


8.  SIZES OF DOORSØ The common width-height relations used:  Width = 0.4 – 0.6 Height—  Height = (width +1.2)m— General sizes used: a) Residential External door – 1.0 x 2.0 to 1.1 x 2.0 m Internal door – 0.9 x 2.0 to 1.0 x 2.0 m Bath & WC – 0.7 X 2.0 to 0.8 x 2.0 m Garages for cars – 2.25 x 2.25 m to 2.40 x 2.25 m b) Public 1.2 x 2.0 m or 1.2 x 2.1 m or 1.2 x 2.25 m Common Criterion for sizes of Door used in India : Height = Width + (1.20 meters) Width = 0.4 × Height OR

9.  DOOR FRAMESü • Materials frames – Timber – Steel – Aluminum – Concrete – Stone • Materials for shutter – Timber – Plywood – Glass – Block

10. FLOOR SURFACE 300 300 50 to 60 GROOVE FOR SHUTTER 12 mm HOLD FAST POST 75 × 100 HEAD 75 × 100  DOOR FRAME§

11. • A door frame is an assembly of horizontal and vertical members forming an enclosure to which door shutters are fixed • The vertical members are known as jambs or posts. • The top horizontal member is known as head. • The horizontal projections of the head are known as horns. • A rebate cut of about 12 mm is provided all-round the frame to receive door shutter.  DOOR FRAME§

12.  Types of Doorsv – On the basis of working operations 1. Hinged doors 2. Revolving doors 3. Sliding doors 4. Swing doors 5. Folded door 6. Collapsible doors 7. Rolling shutter 8. Battened type 9. Framed and paneled 10. Glazed/Sash 11. Flushed 12. Louvered 13. Wire gauged doors 14. Metal Covered Plywood Door

13. • Most doors are hinged along one side to allow the door to pivot away from the doorway in one direction but not in the other. The axis of rotation is usually vertical. • The most common door type. It is a simple & rigid. • The panel swings, opens and closes, on hinges. • Hinged doors require a minimum amount of maintenance and cleaning, they are not expensive, and have an excellent insulating ability. • However, they take up precious room space to swing in.  Hinged doorsv

14.  Revolving doorsv  Such types are provided in public buildings, like— banks, museums, hotels, offices etc. • A revolving door normally has four wings/leaves that hang on a center shaft and rotate one way about a vertical axis within a round enclosure. The central shaft is fitted with ball bearing arrangement at the bottom, which allows the shutters to move without any jerk and making noise. • The radiating shutters may be fully paneled, fully glazed or partly glazed. The glass doors allow people to see and anticipate each other while walking through. Vertical rubber pieces are provided at the rubbing end of the shutter to prevent drought of air. • People can walk out of and into the building at the same time. • The door closes automatically when not in use.

15. • In these doors, the shutter slide horizontally along tracks with the help of runners and rails. often for space or • Sliding glass doors are common in places where there is no space to swing the door. • Such doors are very popular for use for the entrances to commercial structures and also in residential buildings for aesthetic considerations. . • Sliding doors consist of either one, two or three doors that slide by each other on a track depending upon the size of opening and space available for sliding. • They are pretty easily cleaned and maintained. • These doors sound insulation is pretty poor usually, and they must be of high quality and fitted exactly in their tracks or else they may slide out of them. • When fully open these doors will allow half the space of the opening in double sliding doors, or one third if triple.  Sliding doorsv

16.  Sliding doorsv • Sliding doors move along metal, wood, or vinyl tracks fitted into their frames at the top and bottom. To ease their movement, sliding doors often have plastic rollers attached to the top and bottom or to the bottom only. • The door is hung by two trolley hangers at the top of the door running in a concealed track while at the bottom, rollers are provided to slide the shutter in a channel track.

17.  Swing doorsv • The shutter is fitted to its frame by special double action hinges. • The hinges permits the shutter to move both ways, inward as well as outward. • The doors are not rebated at the meeting styles. • To open the door, a slight push is made and the spring action brings the shutter in closed position. The return of the shutter is with force and thus, the door shall be either fully glazed Or provided with a peep hole at eye level, to avoid accidents.

18.  Folded doorsv • Made of many narrow vertical strips or creases that fold back to back into a compact bundle when doors are pushed open, these strips or creases will be hanged from the top, and run on a track. They save space as they do not swing out of the door opening, though their sound and weather isolation is poor. Folding doors are usually pretty noisy, and considered not so durable

19.  Collapsible Doorv  Such doors are used in garages, workshops, public buildings etc. to provide— increased safety and protection to property.  The doors do not require hinges to close or open the shutter nor the frame to— hang them.  It acts like a steel curtain.—  The door is made up from vertical double channels— (20x10x2 mm), jointed together with the hollows on the inside to create a vertical gap.  These channels are spaced at 100-120 mm apart and braced with diagonal iron— flats.  These diagonals allow the shutter to open or closed.—  The shutter operate between two rails,— one fixed to the floor and other to the lintel.  Rollers are mounted at the top and— bottom.

20.  Rolling shutterv  These are commonly used for shops, godowns, stores etc.—  The door shutter acts like a curtain and thus provides— adequate protection and safety against fire and thefts.  The shutter is made up of thin steel slabs called laths or— slates about 1.25 mm thick interlocked to each other and coiled upon specially designed pipe shaft called drum mounted at the top.  The shutter moves in two vertical steel guide channels— installed at their ends.  The channel is made up of steel sheets and deep enough— to accommodate the shutter and to keep it in position.  A horizontal shaft and spring in the drum which allow the— shutter to coiled in or out.  These may be manually operated for smaller openings— (upto 10 sq.m.).  Above 10 sq. m., they may be operated manually.—

21.  Battenedv & ledged doors • These doors consist of vertical boards called battens which are nailed or screwed to the horizontal members, called ledges . Often the battens are a-bout 15 to 18 cm wide and 2 to 3 cm thick. Doors made with narrow battens like these have a better appearance. – With Braces • This is a ledged and battened door to which braces have been added to prevent sagging. These braces must slope upwards from the hinge edge of the door, and they are housed with a skew notch into the ledges.

22.  Framedv & Paneled Door – These doors consist of a frame made up of (a) Stiles (b) a top rail (c) sometimes an intermediate rail (d) into this framework a plywood panel (e) is fitted – This panel may fit into a groove or a rebate.

23. • These are provided where the visibility of the interior of the room is required. Glazed or Sash Doorsv

24. • The flush door with a framed core is a type of door that we frequently make in Rural Building. This door consists of a frame which has stiles, top and bottom rails, and narrow intermediate rails. It is covered on each side by a sheet of plywood Plywood-covered flush doors cannot be used where they will be exposed to rain and sun.  Flush Doorsv

25. • These permit free ventilation through them and at the same time maintain the privacy of the room.  Louvered Doorsv

26. • Wire gauge or fly proof door shutters are fixed to provide free air circulation and prevent mosquitoes, flies, insects etc. from entering into the building.  Wire gauged doorsv

27. • These are composite doors of plywood and mild steel and are reasonably fire proof.  Metal Covered Plywood Doorv


29.  Recommended Dimension for windowsv Sr.No. Designation Size of Opening (mm) Size of Frame Window (mm) Size of Window Shutter (mm) 1 6 WS 12 600×1200 590×1190 500×1100 2 10 WT 12 1000×1200 990×1190 460×1100 3 12 WT 12 1200×1200 1190×1190 560×1100 4 6 WS 13 600×1300 590×1290 500×1200 5 10 WT 13 1000×1300 990×1290 460×1200 6 12 WT 13 1200×1300 1190×1290 560×1200 • WS = Window opening with single shutter • WT = Window opening with double shutters

30.  TYPES OF WINDOWSv 1. Pivoted Windows 2. Double-Hung Windows 3. Sliding Window 4. Casement Windows 5. Glazed Windows 6. Louvered Windows 7. Metal Windows 8. Bay Windows 9. Clerestory Windows 10.Corner Windows 11.Dormer Windows 12.Awning Windows 13.Skylight

31.  Fixed Windowv • In this type, the glass pane is permanently fixed in the opening of the wall. • The shutter can’t be opened or closed. • The function is limited to allowing light and or permit vision in the room. • No rebates are provided to the frame. • The shutters are fully glazed. • In homes they are generally decorative windows near doors, stairwells and high- places or are used in combination with other styles.

32. • In this type of window, the shutter is capable of rotating about a pivot fixed to window frame. • The frame has no rebate. • The shutter can swing horizontally or vertically. Vertical pivotedHorizontal pivoted  Pivoted windowsv

33.  Double-hung windowsv  It has two panes, top and bottom that slide up and down in tracks called stiles.—  The most common used windows today. When open, these windows allow air— flow through half of its size.  The two parts are not necessarily the same size.—  Traditionally, each shutter is provided with a pair of counterweights connected— by cord or chain over pulleys.  When the weights are pulled, the shutters open to required level.—  It is possible to have controlled ventilation.—  Sash windows may be fitted with simplex hinges which allow the window to be— locked into hinges on one side, while the rope on the other side is detached, allowing the window to be opened for escape or cleaning.  Nowadays, most new double-hung sash windows use spring balances to support— the sashes.

34. • Special frames called boxed or cased frame is used, which consists of two vertical members spaced apart to create a groove to slide the shutter. • A parting bead is provided in the groove of the frame to keep the two shutters apart. • Only the bottom sash slides upward in a single-hung window. In single-hung windows the top sash is fixed and can’t be moved.

35. • Has two or more sashes that overlap slightly but slide horizontally within the frame. • Suitable openings or grooves are left in the frame or wall to accommodate the shutters when are shutters are opened.  Sliding Window or Slider:v

36. • Casement windows are hinged at the sides. • When fully opened, offer the maximum amount of ventilation. • Operates like a hinged door, except that it opens and closes with a lever inside the window. • The shutter consists of styles, top rail, bottom rail and intermediate rail. • Depending upon the design, the frame can have additional vertical and horizontal members i.e. mullion and transom respectively. • The panels may be either glazed, unglazed or partly glazed and are fixed in the grooves made in rails and styles. Casement windowsv

37. • This is a type of casement window where panels are fully glazed. • The frame has styles, top rail and a bottom rail. • The space between top and bottom rail is divided into number of panels with small timber members called, sash bars or glazing bars. • The glass panels are cut 1.5-3.0 mm smaller in size than the panel size to permit movement of sash bars. • Glass panes are fixed to sash bars by putty or by timber beads.  Glazed windowv

38.  They are provided for the sole function of ventilation and not for the vision— outside.  The styles are grooved to receive a series of louvers which may be of glass or wood— slates.  The louvers re usually fixed at 450 inclination sloping downward to the outside to— run-off the rain water.  The windows provide light and ventilation even if closed.— Louvered windowv  Such windows are recommended for bath, WC,— workshops etc., where privacy is more important.  Venetian shutters uses louvers which can be— opened or closed. The louvers are pivoted at both ends in the frame and in addition each blade is connected to a vertical batten by hinge.

39.  These are very popular in public buildings and can be made up of mild steel,— stainless steel, aluminum, bronze etc.  Mils steel being cheapest of all, they are widely used. The windows can be— fabricated for the required size using light rolled steel sections.  They can be fixed directly to the wall opening in a wooden frame or in the steel— frame.  While fixing, care has to be taken that the members of the frame are not— subjected to any structural loads to prevent damage.  Thus, the size of the window opening is kept slightly more than the frame size so— as to allow some clearance between the two.  Metal Windows:v  The window is fixed into the opening only after— masonry and lintel work is over and fully set.

40.  The window projecting outward from the external walls .—  Wide and decoratively impressive allow for 180° view.—  A multi-panel window, with at least three panels set at different— angles to create an extension from the wall line.  it is commonly used in cold country where snow often falls.—  They may be triangular, circular, rectangular or polygonal in plan.—  Bay windowv

41. • These are provided to permit light and ventilation to a room having more height than the adjoining rooms or when the ventilation is restricted. • Generally provided near the top of main roof and they open above the slab of adjoining rooms. • The shutters are generally pivoted at centre. • The shutter can be opened or closed by means of two chords, each attached to the rails of the shutter. • The shutter must swing in such a way that the upper part opens inside the room and lower part opens outside, to exclude rain water.  Clerestory windowv

42. • These are provided at the corner of the room. • Light and air is admitted from two directions. • The jamb post at the corner is made of heavy section.  Corner windowv

43. • The windows provided at the dormer end and gable end of the sloping roof to provide light and ventilation to the enclosed space below the roof.  Dormer window and Gable windowv

44. • Awning windows are hinged at the top and open outward. They are designed to provide ventilation without letting in rain, etc. • Awning windows can be used alone or in vertical or horizontal groups in combination with additional awning windows, other types of windows, or above doors. • Awning windows Hopper windows  Awning windowsv

45. These are fixed windows on the sloping roofs.  Admit natural light and help distribute light more evenly throughout the room.— Considered an energy saver feature.  In addition to reducing the need to use electric lights, it can deliver warmth in the— winter and cooling in the summer, minimizing the need for fuel-based heating and air conditioning. On winter days, the sun’s radiant energy can shine through a south- or west-facing skylight to warm interior surfaces. And in the summer, a ventilating skylight can promote air circulation by releasing the warm air that naturally rises.  The opening for the window is made by cutting common rafters. The framework— consist of trimming pieces, curb frames, bottom rail and top rail. The opening is treated with lead flashings to ensure water proofing.  Skylights may be plastic or glass, fixed or operable, and made in any number of— sizes and styles.  Skylightv

46. o Skylight

47.  Fixtures and Fasteningv 1. Hinges 2. Bolts 3. Handles 4. Locks

48. Counter flap hinge Parliamentary hinge Nar-madi hinge Gamet hinge Strap hinge Pin hinge  Hingesv

49. Double acting hinge Spring hinge

50.  Boltsv AL drop bolt Barrel bolt Flush bolt Espagnalette bolt Hspandstaple bolt

51. Bow type Handle Wardrobe Handle Lever Handle Door Handle  Handlesv

52.  Locksv Pad lock Rim lockMortise lock Cupboard lock Lever handle lock

53.  References From :Ø • Dr. R.P. Rethaliya – Books of Building Construction •


  1. Define door

2. Mention 5 types of door

See also

Building Components (foundation)

Wood Processing

Rubber and plastics

Properties of ceramics and glass


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