The energy requirements in humans are determined by a variety of factors, and understanding these factors is crucial for maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle. Here are some of the key factors that influence a person’s energy needs:

1. Age: Age plays a crucial role in determining nutrient requirements. Infants, for example, have unique nutritional needs compared to adults. They require a higher proportion of protein for growth and development, as well as fats for brain development. As individuals age, their nutrient needs change. Older adults may need more calcium and vitamin D to support bone health and less energy due to a decrease in basal metabolic rate.

2. Sex: Biological sex can also impact nutrient requirements. Males and females have different nutritional needs due to variations in body composition and hormonal profiles. In general, males often require more carbohydrates to support their typically higher muscle mass. Females, on the other hand, may have different nutrient requirements, especially during pregnancy and lactation, when they need increased intake of protein, folic acid, iron, and other nutrients to support both their own health and that of the developing fetus.

3. Life Stage: The nutritional needs of an individual can vary depending on their life stage. Different stages, such as infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age, have unique dietary requirements. Adolescent girls, for example, require additional iron to support their growth and menstrual cycles. Pregnant and nursing mothers need higher protein intake to support fetal and infant growth, and they also require mineral salts like calcium and iron for their own health and the development of the child.

4. State of Health: The nutritional requirements of an individual’s diet can be significantly influenced by their health status. A sick individual often requires an increased intake of certain nutrients. For instance, protein intake may need to be elevated to aid in tissue repair and recovery. Vitamins and minerals, such as vitamin C and zinc, can also be essential for a strong immune response during illness. On the other hand, a healthy individual can generally meet their nutrient needs with a balanced diet.

5. Occupation: The type of work a person does can affect their energy and nutrient requirements. Manual laborers engaged in physically demanding work expend more energy and require additional nutrients to support their increased metabolic rate and muscle activity. In contrast, office workers with sedentary jobs may require fewer calories and may need to be more mindful of their carbohydrate and fat intake to avoid excessive weight gain. Additionally, individuals in physically demanding occupations may need extra hydration to compensate for increased sweat and fluid loss.

6. Physical Activity Level: Besides occupation, the overall physical activity level also influences energy and nutrient requirements. Athletes and highly active individuals may need more calories to fuel their workouts and support muscle recovery. They might also require additional protein and carbohydrates to meet these heightened demands.

7. Specific Health Conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, heart disease, or celiac disease, can necessitate specialized dietary adjustments. People with diabetes, for instance, need to carefully manage their carbohydrate intake and blood sugar levels. Those with heart disease may need to reduce saturated fats and cholesterol in their diet. People with celiac disease must avoid gluten-containing foods to prevent intestinal damage.

An individual’s nutrient and energy requirements are influenced by a complex interplay of factors, including age, sex, life stage, health status, occupation, physical activity level, and any specific health conditions. Tailoring one’s diet to meet these unique requirements is essential for overall health and well-being. Consulting with a healthcare professional or registered dietitian can provide personalized guidance to ensure optimal nutrition.

Balanced Diet

A balanced diet is a fundamental aspect of maintaining good health and well-being. It is achieved when the diet provides the body with all the essential nutrients it needs in the right amounts or proportions. Here’s an in-depth look at the key components of a balanced diet:

1. Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates are a primary source of energy for the body. They can be found in foods like grains (e.g., rice, wheat), starchy vegetables (e.g., potatoes), and legumes (e.g., lentils). Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose, which is used for immediate energy or stored for future use.

2. Proteins: Proteins are essential for growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues. Sources of protein include meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, legumes, and nuts. A balanced diet should include a variety of protein sources to ensure a wide range of essential amino acids.

3. Lipids (Fats): Fats are important for energy storage, insulation, and the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K). Healthy fats can be found in sources like avocados, nuts, seeds, and olive oil. It’s essential to include both unsaturated and saturated fats in moderation.

4. Vitamins: Vitamins are organic compounds required in small quantities for various metabolic processes and overall health. They are typically found in fruits, vegetables, and other food groups. Different vitamins have different roles, such as vitamin C for immune function or vitamin A for vision.

5. Mineral Salts: Minerals, like calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium, play essential roles in maintaining electrolyte balance, bone health, and muscle function. They can be found in dairy products, leafy greens, and various other food sources.

6. Water: Water is vital for overall health and well-being. It regulates body temperature, aids digestion, and helps transport nutrients throughout the body. Staying well-hydrated is critical for various bodily functions.

7. Dietary Fiber or Roughage: Dietary fiber is the indigestible portion of plant foods that is essential for digestive health. It adds bulk to the diet, aids in bowel regularity, and may help prevent certain health conditions. Foods rich in dietary fiber include whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and legumes.

Achieving a balanced diet involves combining these components in a way that suits an individual’s age, sex, activity level, and specific nutritional requirements. It’s important to note that the proportions and specific foods within these categories can vary from person to person. Dietary needs change over the lifespan, so it’s essential to adapt one’s diet as they age and their lifestyle evolves.

In addition to the above components, a balanced diet should also consider factors like portion control, avoiding excessive consumption of processed foods, minimizing added sugars and salt, and maintaining variety to ensure a broad spectrum of nutrients. Consulting with a healthcare provider or a registered dietitian can be helpful in creating a personalized and sustainable balanced diet plan.


Malnutrition is a complex and multifaceted health issue that arises from an improper and unbalanced intake of essential nutrients. It encompasses a range of conditions where an individual’s diet is insufficient, excessive, or lacks the necessary diversity to support optimal growth, development, and overall health. Malnutrition can manifest in several forms, including undernutrition, overnutrition, and micronutrient deficiencies, each of which has its own set of adverse consequences.

1. Undernutrition: Undernutrition occurs when an individual’s dietary intake falls short of their body’s energy and nutrient requirements. This often leads to a deficiency in essential macronutrients (such as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and micronutrients (such as vitamins and minerals). Prolonged undernutrition can result in conditions like stunting (impaired growth), wasting (severe weight loss), and underweight, which can have long-term health effects, particularly in children.

2. Overnutrition: Overnutrition, on the other hand, is characterized by an excessive intake of calories and nutrients, often leading to conditions like obesity and related health problems, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers. The modern prevalence of overnutrition is often linked to the consumption of energy-dense but nutrient-poor foods, sedentary lifestyles, and genetic factors.

3. Micronutrient Deficiencies: In addition to macronutrients, a lack of essential vitamins and minerals can also contribute to malnutrition. Common examples include iron-deficiency anemia, vitamin A deficiency, and iodine deficiency disorders. Micronutrient deficiencies can impair immune function, vision, cognitive development, and overall well-being.

Malnutrition can result from a variety of factors, including:

– Limited access to nutritious food due to poverty or food insecurity.
– Poor dietary habits and a lack of knowledge about proper nutrition.
– Cultural and dietary preferences that may lead to imbalanced diets.
– Inadequate healthcare and access to clean water and sanitation, which can increase susceptibility to infections and interfere with nutrient absorption.
– Environmental factors, such as droughts or food crop failures, that can disrupt food supplies.
– Political and economic instability, which can affect food distribution and affordability.
– Unhealthy eating patterns influenced by advertising, marketing, and the availability of processed and fast foods.

Addressing malnutrition involves various strategies, including promoting proper nutrition education, improving access to affordable and nutritious foods, enhancing healthcare systems, and addressing social and economic determinants. Additionally, efforts to combat malnutrition often focus on ensuring that individuals receive a well-balanced diet that provides all the necessary nutrients in the right proportions to support their physical and mental health, growth, and overall well-being.

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Deficiency Diseases

Deficiency diseases result from prolonged absence of certain components in the diet

– Examples are:


Lack of enough food results in thin arms and legs,

  1. severe loss of fluid,
  2. general body wasting
  3. sunken eyes


  1. Lack of protein in the diet of children
  2. The symptoms of kwashiorkor include wasting of the body, red thin hair, swollen abdomen and scaly skin

Other deficiency diseases are due to lack of accessory food factors (vitamins and mineral salts) such diseases include rickets, goitre and anaemia

Treatment of these deficiency diseases is by supplying the patient with the component missing in the diet

See also:

Political Apathy: Fighting, Forms of Political Apathy

Evolution: Theories of Evolution, Jean Lamarck’s theories & Charles Darwin’s theory 

Social Animals: Characteristics, Examples, Termites, Honey Bees,

Adaptation: Structural Adaptation. Adaptive Colouration & Behavioural Adaptation

Variation, Competition & Succession of Organisms

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