Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) (veneral diseases) are the diseases that are contacted through sexual intercourse. Examples include syphilis, gonorrhea, herpes, thrush, AIDSetc.The table below shows a list of STIs, their symptoms, transmission, etc.
|GONORRHOEA||Bacterium (Neisseria gonorrhea)||− Burning sensation during urination in males|
− A thick yellowish discharge in males
− Pain on passing urine in females
− Vagina discharge and swelling of the vulva
− Redness around the urinary openings
− Sterility at advanced stage
|− Discourage commercialized prostitution|
− Avoid multiple sexual partners
− Get medical attention and stop sexual intercourse with previous partner(s)
|SYPHILIS||Bacterium (Treponemapallidium)||− A small painless sore appear on the penis or vulva at the initial stage|
− Fever, skin rashes, mouth ulcer, aching pains at the lymph node regions at secondary stage
− Nervous disorder, insanity, repeated abortion etc.
|As in gonorrhoea|
|Acquired immunue deficiency syndrome (AIDS)||Human immune – deficiency virus (HIV)||− Fever, chronic diarrhea|
− Excessive weight loss
− General skin irritation
− Swelling of the glands
− Persistent cough
− Persistent severe fatigued
|− Keep one faithful partner|
− Avoid sharing sharp objects such as razor blade,
− Screening of blood before transfusion
− Avoid oral, anal sex and kissing
− National mass campaign to educate people on the danger of HIV
|Human papillomavirus (HPV)||− Painless, flesh coloured bumps/warts develop on the penis, in and around the vagina and the anus and may re-appear at different times.|
− Cervical cancer
|− Vaccine available for women aged 9 -26.|
− sharing personal items, including towels, razors, bars of soap, footwear, or other objects
HIV AND AIDS
HIV (Acquired immune deficiency virus) is the pathogen that caused AIDS, a sexually transmitted disease. AIDS is a disease in which the immune system of the human body is completely broken down, rendering the body unable to fight against any pathogens that attack it.HIV belong to a group of RNA virus referred to as retro – viruses. They are capable of converting their RNA to DNA; they attack, infect and destroy certain white blood cells called helper T cells or CD4 (lymphocytes).
HIV can remain dormant in the cell of the host for years and multiplying as the cells of the host divide, eventually the virus becomes active producing many viruses causing the killing of the helper T cells. Once the body looses too many helper T cells, the body’s defense against infections crumbles and the body becomes vulnerable to various disease pathogens causing various opportunistic diseases.
MODE OF TRANSMISSION
Apart from sexual intercourse, HIV can be transmitted through
- Receiving blood transfusion from an infected person
- Infection through pregnancy, child birth and breast feeding
- Using unsterilized infected needles and syringes
- By practicing oral and anal sex
- Open mouth kiss with an infected person
- Mention five sexually transmitted diseases
- State the causative organisms of the diseases mentioned above.
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS
- Mention five beneficial and five harmful effects of microorganisms.
- In a tabular form, state causal agent and symptoms of five bacterial diseases.
- State three airborne diseases and their symptoms.
- What are sexually transmitted infections?
- State five STIs, their causal agent, mode of transmission and symptoms.
- The following diseases are caused by bacteria except (a) gonorrhea (b) AIDS (c) syphilis (d) none of the above
- A disease characterized by high fevers, loss of weight, chronic diarrhea, wasting away and final death is (a) gonorrhea (b) AIDS (c) syphilis (d) none of the above
- Which of the following is not a sexually transmitted disease? (a) gonorrhea (b) malaria (c) syphilis (d) AIDS
- Which of the following statements is wrong? (a) All STIs are caused by viruses (b) All STIs are caused by bacteria (c) All STIs are caused by protozoans (d) All of the above
- A disease which displays symptoms which are similar to the symptoms of other diseases is (a) syphilis (b) malaria (c) river blindness (d) none of the above
- State the causative organisms, five modes of infection and five ways of controlling AIDS.
- Differentiate between HIV and AIDS.