Human rights are the inalienable rights and privileges enjoyed by the citizens of a state as codified in the constitution. Such rights include right to life, right to dignity of human person, right to personal liberty, right to freedom of expression and the press, right to freedom of movement, right to fair hearing, right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion, right to vote and be voted for, right to private and family life, etc.
Table of Contents
- Define human right.
- Mention six examples of human rights
LIMITATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
Human rights can be restricted for the overall good of the citizens and the country at large in the following ways:
- A citizen may be denied some of his rights if he is detained by a court of law.
- A citizen’s right to life may be denied if he is condemned to death by the law court as a result of murder, armed robbery, etc.
- Right to life is also restricted by the law which forbids a citizen from killing himself or herself.
- Right to fair hearing cannot be exercised beyond the highest court which is the Supreme Court in Nigeria.
- Right to private property may be restricted by the right of the state to compulsorily acquire private property for public use.
- Declaration of dusk to dawn curfew in periods of emergency or chaos may limit the right of a citizen such as freedom of movement.
- The police in enforcing law and order can ban public assembly and demonstrations which will deny a citizen his rights to freedom of association and assembly.
- A citizen suffering from insanity or contagious disease may be deprived his rights to safeguard the rights of others.
- The court can also restrict the movement of a citizen if he/she has a serious case pending in court.
- Rights to freedom of expression and the press are restricted by the law that prevents individuals from saying or publishing statement that could damage the personality of others (laws of slander and libel).
- Some public office holders such as the president, governor, parliamentarians, ambassadors, judges cannot be sued while in office because they enjoy protection of the law called ‘immunity clause’
- Existence of military rule or an unpopular dictatorial government can lead to restriction of citizens’ rights.
- What do you understand by ‘immunity clause’?
- State five reasons for the limitations of human rights.
- What is constitution?
- Differentiate between constitution and constitutionalism
- Explain five factors that can promote rule of law in a state
- Explain five human rights
- List four major challenges of democracy in Nigeria
Instruction: From the options lettered A-D, choose the letter that is most appropriate for the following questions. Answer all the questions.
- Limitations on human rights include all but A. Libel law B. public order law C. compulsory property acquisition laws D. good government
- The right to freedom of expression is limited by the law of A. slander B. speech
- article D. conversation
- Right to free movement can be restricted during all of the following except A. chaos B. war C. curfew D. peaceful protest
- Privileges enjoyed by citizen but within the ambit of the law is called? A. Ownership B. Human rights C. Liberty D. Enjoyment
5 The UDHR came into existence in A. 1960 B. 1945 C. 1948 D. 1963
- Explain three reasons for limitation of human rights.
- Explain what you understand by law of slander and libel.