DEFINITION OF LABORATORY
A laboratory is a room or building equipped for scientific experimentation or research. It is a special facility where experiments are done and typically contains scientific equipment and apparatus.
Laboratory apparatus refers to the various tools or equipment used by scientists working in the laboratory.
Some common laboratory apparatuses include: test tube, beaker, conical flask, flat bottomed flask, round-bottomed flask, funnel (plastic or glass) thistle funnel, brush, Woulff’s bottle tripod stand, retort stand, spatula, Bunsen burner, separating funnel, wire gauze, clamp, beehive shelf, gas jar, desiccated, reflux-condenser, Liebig condenser, pipette, burette, delivery tube, deflagrating spoon, u-tube, thermometer, aspirator bottle, wash bottle, chemical balance, reagent bottle, fume cupboard etc.
SOME LABORATORY APPARATUS AND THEIR USES
- EVAPORATING DISH:
It is made of porcelain. It may be round or flat bottomed. It is used in the evaporation of solution to dryness
- BEAKER: It is available in different sizes. It is flat bottom cylindrical, graduated and usually with a lip for easy pouring of solution. It is used to hold solution or measure solution during an experiment.
- ASPIRATOR BOTTLE: It is a Jerry can made of plastic or glass with a screw tap. It is used for storing distilled water during an experiment.
- CRUCIBLE: It is usually made of porcelain with a lid to match. It can withstand high temperature hence, it is used for ignition of substances until they are decomposed.
- WOULFF’S BOTTLE: It is a glass bottle used during the preparation of dry gases to hold liquid or solutions that are employed as drying agents or in absorbing unwanted gases.
- CONICAL FLASK: It is commonly used during titration experiments. It is usually graduated and used to estimate the volume of a solution.
- FLAT AND ROUND BOTTOM FLASKS: They are made of glass and are mainly used for boiling especially during distillation experiments.
- STANDARD VOLUMETRIC FLASK: It has a flat-bottom, pear-shaped and with a narrow neck. It is used in preparing standard solutions to a specific or definite volume.
- FUME CUPBOARD: It is usually a wooden cupboard with its front made of glass which can easily move up and down. It is used to prepare poisonous gases
- DISTILLATION FLASK: It has a flat or round bottom with a slanting long side arm. It is used during distillation.
- BELL JAR: It is made of thick glass, cylindrical, tall and usually with a knob at the top. It is used in combustion experiments.
- GAS JAR: It is made of thick glass, cylindrical, tall and sealed at the bottom. It is used for the collection of gas over water or dry gas
- DROPPING BOTTLE OR DROPPING PIPETTE: It is used in keeping or transferring solutions or reagents that are required in drops during experiments.
- SPATULA: It is made of iron which looks like a spoon. It is used in transferring little quantity of solids into test tubes
- BURETTE: It is used during titration experiments and also in transferring small volume of solution.
- RETORT STAND WITH CLAMP: It is used as support during experiments
- DESSICATOR: It is used in keeping and drying solids in an atmosphere that is dry and free of dust.
- MEASURING CYLINDER: It is used to measure the volume of solutions.
- KIPPS APPARATUS: It is used in the intermittent supply of gases.
- WIRE GUAZE: It is used as a support for flasks during heating.
- FILTER FUNNEL: It is used in filling the burette or in supporting the filter paper during filtration.
- CONDENSER (LIEBIG): It is used in cooling or condensing vapour into liquid during distillation or when refluxing.
- CENTRIFUGE: It is used in separating fine solid particles in a liquid.
- TEST-TUBE: It is used in qualitative analyses to hold reactants’
- SEPARATING FUNNEL: It is used in the separation of immiscible liquids.
- Mention ten (10) laboratory pieces of apparatus you know and their uses
- Define (a) Laboratory (b) Laboratory apparatus
IDENTIFICATION OF SOME LABORATORY APPARATUS
Identify the laboratory apparatuses and laboratory set-up labeled A-I below:
LABORATORY SAFETY RULES
- Dress well for the laboratory: Wear lab coat, safety goggles, footwear and tie long hair back to avoid catching fire
- Keep pathways clear by placing items such as books and bags on the shelves or under the work table.
- Do not taste or smell chemicals
- Unauthorized experiments or procedures must not be attempted
- Pay close attention to any cautions described in the laboratory exercise
- Do not leave your assigned laboratory station without the permission of the teacher
- Do not lean, hang over or sit on the laboratory tables
- Fooling around or “horse play” in the laboratory is absolutely forbidden
- Learn location of the fire extinguisher, eye wash station, first aid kit and safety shower.
- Reports all accidents, injuries, and breakage of glass or equipment to instructor only.
- Always follow the instructions given by your teachers
- No eating or drinking in the laboratory at any time!
- Leave your work station clean and in good order before leaving the laboratory
- List ten safety measures in the laboratory
- State the uses of: (a) Evaporating dish (b) Pipette (c) Retort stand (d) Measuring cylinder (e) Conical flask
- An apparatus in the laboratory in which the preparation of poisonous gases is done is called (a) distillation tank (b) Aspirator bottle (c) fume cupboard (d) bell jar
- In the laboratory _______ is used for the collection of a gas over water (a) gas jar (b) Woulff’s bottle (c) reagent bottle (d)burette
- Two liquids which are immiscible with each other can be separated using (a) bell jar (b) gas jar (c) wash bottle (d) separating funnel
- An apparatus used to hold drying agents during the preparation of dry gases is (a) conical flask (b) gas jar (c) Woulff’s bottle (d) flat bottom flask
- Coloured reagent bottles are used to store reagents which are capable of _____ easily by sunlight (a) evaporating (b) decomposing (c) dehydrating (d) dissolving
- Define Laboratory
- List five safety measures that must be taken when in the laboratory
- State the use of the following apparatuses
- Separating funnel
INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY
APPLICATIONS OF ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS
ELECTROLYTIC CELLS AND ELECTROLYSIS OF SPECIFIED ELECTROLYTES