Listening and speaking

The /l∂/ sound e.g. /ear, clear, hear).

The articulation of this diphthong involves a gliding movement of the tongue towards the centre as illustrated in the following vowel chart.

If you pronounce the word ‘here’ the shape of the lips remains neutral from the beginning of the articulation of the diphthong to the end while the glide begins with a tongue position/i/ and mores in the direction of /∂/. The spelling symbols for/ld/ are:

‘Ere’’ as in here.

‘’ear’’ as in hear.

‘Eer’’ as in beer.

‘Eir’’ as in weird.


A diagram showing the gliding movement of the tongue for the production of /∂/, /u∂ /, /e∂/


Underline the word that show sound /l∂ / in the following sentences.

  1. The deer is a herbivorous animal.
  2. At the appearance of her child, tear of joy flowed down her cheeks.
  3. Don’t fear a deer, it won’t attack you.
  4. He took hi dear wife to see a play at the theatre.
  5. Do you really want dada here?


GRAMMAR : More on active and passive voices.

ACTIVE VOICE: in active voice, the action of the subject on the object is mentioned.  The subject of a particular sentence does something to the object. In other words, the subject of the sentences is the doer of the action. The subject of a sentence refers to the person or thing that writer or speaker is talking about, the subject of a sentence is either a noun or a pronoun. Example:

  1. The man sold his clothes.
  2. Alake killed a lion.
  3. The policeman caught the thieves
  4. The cat killed the rat.

The subject becomes the object and vice versa.

I become me

We becomes us

She become her

He becomes him.

  • The verb is changed to the past participle.

v    The auxiliary verb should agree with the subject.

  1. B) PASSIVE VOICE: the object of the verb is placed in the subject position of the sentence. In other words, the subject of sentence is the receiver of the action. Examples:

The dog was sold by the boy

The lion was killed by Alade.

The house was destroyed by fire.

Thieves were caught by policemen.

More examples on active and passive voice.

Active voice                                                                                        Passive voice

  1. Bola eats rice Rice is eaten by Bola
  2. He sells books Books are sold by him
  3. Bola is eating rice now Rice is being eaten by bola
  4. Kemi was eating rice              Rice was being eaten by Kemi
  5. Does she eat yam Is yam eaten by her
  6. Is he writing a letter? Is a letter being written by him?
  7. Did he steal the book? Was the book stole by him?
  8. Shall we buy the bag? Will the bag be bought by us?



Progressive English (An elaborate coverage of Grammar)

Exercise 15A – pg 128

Instruction: Turn each of the following into passive voice

  1. The girl opened the door
  2. Victoria is writing a letter
  3. I shall hide the book
  4. The bus carried thirsty passengers
  5. The farmer killed a snake


See also


Transitive an intransitive verbs

consonant sound



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