Energy is the amount of force or power when applied can move one object from one position to another or Energy defines the capacity of a system to do work. Energy exists in everybody whether they are human beings or animals or non living things for e.g.: Jet, Light, Machines etc.


What are the Sources of Energy?

Energy is broadly classified into two main groups: Renewable and Non-renewable.


Renewable Energy

Renewable energy is the energy which is generated from natural sources i.e. sun, wind, rain, tides and can be generated again and again as and when required. They are available in plenty and by far the most cleanest sources of energy available on this planet. E.g. energy that we receive from the sun can be used to generate electricity. Similarly, energy from wind, geothermal, biomass from plants, tides can be used to fulfill our daily energy demands.

Here are some of the pros and cons of using renewable sources of energy.



  1. What is energy?
  2. State two ways by which energy is classified



The sun, wind, geothermal, ocean energy are available in the abundant quantity and free to use.

The non-renewable sources of energy that we are using are limited and are bound to expire one day.

Renewable sources have low carbon emissions, therefore they are considered as green and environment friendly.

  • Renewable helps in stimulating the economy and creating job opportunities. The money that is used to build these plants can provide jobs to thousands and millions of people.
  • You don’t have to rely on any third country for the supply of renewable sources as in case of non-renewable sources.
  • Renewable sources can cost less than consuming the local electrical supply. In the long run, the prices of electricity are expected to soar since they are based on the prices of crude oil, so renewable sources can cut your electricity bills.
  • Various tax incentives in the form of tax waivers, credit deductions are available for individuals and businesses who want to go green.



  • It is not easy to set up a plant as the initial costs are quite steep.
  • Solar energy can be used during the day time and not during night or rainy season.
  • Geothermal energy which can be used to generate electricity has side effects too. It can bring toxic chemicals beneath the earth surface onto the top and can create environmental changes.
  • Hydroelectric provide pure form of energy but building dams across the river which is quite expensive can affect natural flow and affect wildlife.
  • To use wind energy, you have to rely on strong winds therefore you have to choose suitable site to operate them. Also, they can affect bird population as they are quite high.



  1. State the meaning of renewable and non-renewable energy
  2. Give two examples each of renewable and non-renewable energy.
  3. State two each of pros and cons of energy.


Non-Renewable Energy

Non-Renewable energy is the energy which is taken from the sources that are available on the earth in limited quantity and will vanish fifty-sixty years from now. Non-renewable sources are not environmental friendly and can have serious affect on our health. They are called non-renewable because they cannot be re-generated within a short span of time. Non-renewable sources exist in the form of fossil fuels, natural gas, oil and coal



  1. Give two uses and misuses of energy
  2. What is the implication of misuse of petroleum



Economic security is impacted by energy choices. Individuals and society continually make energy choices that have economic consequences.

  • Transportation can have negative consequences to the health, environment and economics of a society.
  • Relying on imported energy can create vulnerabilities to a nation’s security. The impacts of energy decisions are not equal for all people.
  • Poor or marginalized societies are more likely to suffer negative consequences of energy decisions because they have a reduced capacity for adaptation and they may lack negotiating power compared to wealthy nations. However, vulnerable populations can also benefit greatly from improvements in energy accessibility, safety or affordability.


  • The world is strongly dependent on energy from finite supplies of fossil fuels. As demand increases and supply becomes scarce, the problem becomes more acute, with potentially severe economic and social consequences. A large-scale transition away from fossil energy poses a great challenge for society.

These consequences come in the form of monetary cost in general and in the form of price fluctuation and instability specifically.

  • People will be hungry, starvation will set in due to poor transportation in the country
  • Travelling, especially to overseas countries. It will not be easy because of lack of aviation fuel
  • Transportation of goods and services will be very hard for lack of petrol and diesel. Solar energy can be used during the day time and not during night or rainy season.


Energy generation has affected the quality of life in many ways:

  1. Many self-employed depend on electricity for their works e.g. hairdressers, tailors, welders.
  2. The cost of production is increased in some companies when electricity supply is poor.
  3. Without electricity, radio and television may not be operated in some home and people become uninformed.
  4. Without electricity the refrigerator will not work, and it will be difficult to preserve food



  1. Mention four ways how energy generation affect quality of life
  2. Give two ways how electrical energy has affected quality of life.



  1. ——— is the energy that is restorable A. renewable energy B. kerosene C.  petrol
  2. wood
  3. Hydroelectric provide pure form of energy but building dams across the river which is quite expensive can affect ——– and affect wildlife. A. natural flow B. artificial flow C. in and out flow D. none of the above
  4. Renewable energy is one that
  5. Using a set of generator instead of electricity will ———
  6. increases the cost of production of some industries B. help to use petrol adequately C. result to closing of industries D.  increase the quality of life in the society
  7. Without electricity there will be spoilage of the following food except ——–
  8. fish B. meat C. garri D. meat



  1. Describe the effects of energy generation on quality of society
  2. Give three examples each of renewable and non-renewable energy
  3. Explain the implications of unwise use of non-renewable energy


See also





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