# Basic Science and Technology (Primary Classes)

## FRICTIONAL FORCES

Magnetism is a force that can attract (pull closer) or repel (push away) objects that have a magnetic material like iron inside them (magnetic objects). Magnets can be affected by electricity, which makes them very useful in machines and computers. Magnets are used to make a tight seal on the doors to refrigerators and freezers, […]

## FRICTIONAL FORCES

To stop a moving object, a force must act in the opposite direction to the direction of motion. For instance, if you push your book across your desk, the book will move. The force of the push moves the book. As the book slides across the desk, it slows down and stops moving. The force

## FORCES

In the school and at home, we see many moving things. We move about on our legs, vehicles move on roads, trains on the rails, aeroplanes fly in the sky and ships sail on the seas. Movement occurs when a force is applied on a thing or object. That is, force causes things to move.

## SIMPLE MACHINES â€“ INCLINED PLANE

An inclined plane is a simple machine. It allows one to use less force to move an object. Examples of inclined planes are ramps, sloping roads and hills, plows, chisels, hatchets, carpenterâ€™s planes, and wedges. MEANING INCLINED PLANE An inclined plane is a simple machine used to raise a load to places higher than the

## PULLEYS

A pulley is a wheel that has a smooth groove in its rim, with a rope passing through the groove. At times, there are loads that are too heavy to lift. MEANING OF PULLEYÂ  A pulley is a simple machine that is used to lift heavy objects. A simple machine for overcoming this difficulty is

## LEVERS

A machine is a simple object which makes our work easier to do. Many objects in the school and at home such as a pair of scissors, bottle opener and cutlass, are examples of simple machines. In science, anything that makes us to use less energy to do much work or overcome a large force

## SAFETY AND ACCIDENTS

MEANING OF SAFETY Safety means keeping yourself and others free from harm or danger. Thatâ€™s being careful not to fall, bump or run into things. MEANING OF ACCIDENT Accidents are unplanned or unexpected events that happen to human beings. Accidents can happen everywhere, for example, in the schools, homes, roads and markets. Â  COMMON ACCIDENTSÂ

## Muscular system

The muscular system is made up of tissues that work with the skeletal system to control movement of the body. Some musclesâ€”like the ones in your arms and legsâ€”are voluntary, meaning that you decide when to move them. Other muscles, like the ones in your stomach, heart, intestines and other organs, are involuntary.   Functions

## Digestive system

The human digestive system is a series of organs that converts food into essential nutrients that are absorbed into the body. The digestive organs also move waste material out of the body. The enzymes in saliva help break down foods, and the lubrication function of saliva makes it easier for food to be swallowed. Â

## System of the body and its functions

System of the body and its functions Body systems are groups of organs and tissues that work together to perform important jobs for the body. Some organs may be part of more than one body system if they serve more than one function. Other organs and tissues serve a purpose in only one body system.

## BASIC ELECTRICITY

Electricity is a form of energy that can give things the ability to move and work. Electricity makes the following to do work or move: bulbs, toys, machines, cars, television etc.   CONDUCTOR AND NON CONDUCTOR CONDUCTOR Conductors are materials that allow energy to flow through them. For example, wire, iron, pin, spoon, etc. They

## BASIC ELECTRICITY

Electricity is a form of energy that can give things the ability to move and work. Electricity makes the following to do work or move: bulbs, toys, machines, cars, television etc.   PUPILS ACTIVITIES Materials required A plastic comb (or a glass rod or a plastic rod), pupils with dry hair, a piece of dry

## MEANING OF HEAT AND TEMPERATURE

HEAT Heat is a form of energy that increases the level of hotness of the body.   TEMPERATURE Temperature is the degree of hotness or coldness of the body â€“water, iron, food etc. Heat and temperature are often used as if they are used as the same thing.. When substance is hot, the temperature is

## MEANING OF HEAT AND TEMPERATURE

HEAT Heat is a form of energy that increases the level of hotness of the body.   TEMPERATURE Temperature is the degree of hotness or coldness of the body â€“water, iron, food etc. Heat and temperature are often used as if they are used as the same thing. When substance is hot, the temperature is

## MEANING AND IMPORTANCE OF ENERGY CONVERSION

Energy is the ability to be active or to do work MEANING OF ENERGY CONVERSION Energy conversion is also known as energy transformation. It is the process of changing energy from one type of energy to another.   FORMS OF ENERGY CONVERSION Mechanical energy can be transformed to heat energy. Electrical energy can be transformed

## DRAWING INSTRUMENTS

DrawingÂ is a form ofÂ visual artÂ in which a person uses various drawing instruments to markÂ paperÂ or anotherÂ two-dimensionalÂ medium. Instruments includeÂ graphiteÂ pencils,Â pen and ink, various kinds Â paints,Â inkedÂ brushes,Â colored pencils,Â crayons,Â charcoal,Â chalk,Â pastels, various kinds Â erasers,Â markers,Â styluses, and various metals (such asÂ silverpoint).   Digital drawing is the act of using aÂ computerÂ to draw. A drawing instrument releases a small amount of material onto a surface, leaving a

## MEANING AND USES OF MAINTENANCE MATERIALS

The purpose of maintenance is to ensure that our equipment is in good working conditions. A breakdown in plants and machines clouds is as a result of inadequate maintenance.   MEANING OF MAINTENANCE Maintenance is an activity that should be carried out on regular basis in order to keep equipment in good working conditions.

## CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF ACCIDENT

MEANING OF SAFETY Safety is the state of being safe, the condition of being protected from harm and other non-desirable outcomes. Safety means keeping yourself and other from harm and danger. Â  MEANING OF ACCIDENT An accident is an unplanned event that sometimes has inconvenient or undesirable consequences. An accident is something harmful and takes

## MEANING, TYPES AND IDENTIFICATION OF MATERIALS

MEANING OF MATERIALS A material is a substance or mixture of substances that constitutes an object. Materials can be pure or impure, living or non-living matter. Materials can be classified based on their physical and chemical properties, or on their geographical origin or biological function. Materials are resources used in making products of technology.

## Forms of Force

Force is a push or pulls acting upon an object as a result of its interaction with another object. There are a variety of types of forces. Previously in this lesson, a variety of force types were placed into two broad category headings on the basis of whether the force resulted from the contact or