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Comprehension – Reading for Implied Meanings

    It is important to realize that, when reading, the writer sometimes takes for granted that the reader knows something about the thing he writes. He expects that you will be prepared to piece together the information he gives you and draw conclusions from the information. It is your job then to read for implied meanings. You can do this by:

    1. Reading the questions before, during and at the end of reading assignment
    2. Linking ideas to follow the writer’s line of thought
    3. Bringing in what you know from your background to help understand the reading assignment.
    4. Testing any conclusions you draw against information given.

    The passage on page 168, Effective English, focuses on the misdemeanor committed by a prefect who got a junior student pregnant. He had to be publicly caned an unprecedented thirty – six strokes. 


    Read and answer the questions which accompany it.

    1. Speech Work – Diphthongs /eI, ai, Ͻi, aƱ and ǝƱ/

    Remember that these diphthongs are called closing diphthongs as their production require a gliding movement of the tongue towards the close region as shown on the chart below.


    I                               Ʊ



    a          Ͻ



    This vowel starts from an e-like quality. Then the tongue moves slightly up and back into a position for /I/. there is no identifiable break between /e/ and /I/

    Example;   fate, date, gape, save, day, pay, waist, eight.

    / aI/

    The articulation of / aI/ starts with a sound which has the quality of /a/ but the quality changes with the gradual glides towards./I/If you pronounce the word “high” the opening of the mouth gets smaller with the closing movement of the lower jaw following the glides toward / I/

    Example:   site, pipe, dye, fight, height, buy.

    / Ͻi /

    This is a dipthong which begins from the back towards the front and the lips which are “rounded”, gradually become spread as the tongue glides moves towards /i/

    Example:   boil, toy, soil, coy.

    / ǝƱ/

    In the production of / ǝƱ/, the glide starts with the centre of the tongue and moves to a position between the centre and the back with a slight closing movement of the lower jaw.

    Example:   go, toe, goat, soul, slow, hope

    / aƱ/

    The tongue glides from /a/ and gradually towards / Ʊ/with the closing movement of the jaw. The shape of the lips changes from neutral to a rounded position.

    Example:   cow, bow, out, shout, plough.


    From the words lettered A – D, chose the one that has the same vowel sound as the one represented by the underlined letter(s)

    1. boys noise           B. purse           C. bout            D. most
    2. laid plait                        B. light            C. said             D. raid
    3. now crow           B. bout            C. naught        D. know
    4. sight still             B. seethe         C. lite              D. life


    1. Vocabulary Development – Power Production

    The principal sources of power, apart from our own bodies are:

    1. Animals: (horses, camels, donkeys, etc.) to ride on, to carry heavy loads and to pull vehicles.
    2. Moving water: currents will cause boats to drift; waterfalls can drive heavy machinery1Inwatermills and likes,tides can be used to generate
    3. Moving air (winds): can drive heavy machinery in windmills and propel ships equipped with sails.
    4. Tension: can project weapons and in the form of springs can drive light machines, e.g. clocks, watches and toys.
    5. Fuels: (wood, coal, petroleum, natural gas) which when ignited, can release energy to drive machines or to be converted into electricity.
    6. The sun: solar energy is used on a limited scale for domestic and other heating.
    7. Nuclearfission: releases energy for conversion into electricity.

    For every modern nation, the generation of electricity, to provide light, heat and motive power, is the most important form of powerproduction. Each nation therefore establishes powerstations using waterturbines in hydro-electric plants, steamturbines in hydro-electric plants, steamturbines in coalfuelled or oilfuelled plants and nuclearreactors fuelled by uranium, uranium oxide or uranium carbide. The use of tidalenergy to generate power is still relatively small. However, when mineralfuels are exhausted, it seems that wind, water and the sun will again become man’s principal source of power.


    1. Learn the words and phrases in bold. Find out the meanings of those unfamiliar to you.
    2. Choose the correct answer from letters A to E to fill in the gaps in the following sentences
    • Coal is one of the ________ fuels. extracted    B. nuclear    C. native    D. fossil    E. fission
    • Electricity is _________ in power stations made    B. ignited    C. generated    D. developed    E. converted
    • Nuclear ________ is used to generate electricity fusion    B. fission    C. uranium     D. reactor    E. turbines
    • Windmills use ________ power to drive machinery. wind    B. water    C. moving    D. electric     E. nuclear
    • Nuclear __________ are fuelled by uranium. power    B. electricity    C. stations    D. turbines     E. reactors
    1. Essay – Writing: Letter to a Friend

    A letter to a friend is also known as friendly letter. A friendly letter as you will remember, is an informal letter. Revise a few things about an informal letter here before you write more letters especially to a friend.

    A good friendly letter has the following parts:

    1. The address and date: Government Secondary School,


    Imo State.

    10th July, 2008.

    1. Salutation –           Dear Bola,
    2. The body – Introduce the topic of the letter and discuss it fully, writing in paragraphs. Make use of acceptable language for informal letters. Since it is a letter to a friend, you must be chatty. Discuss freely, as if you are actually chatting with the receiver. Use short forms. Like I’m, you’ve, can’t, he’s etc.

    (i)    Paragraph 1 – Inquire after the well-being of your friend and tell him about yours.

    (ii)     Paragraph 2 & 3: Bring in other topics of interest to both of your into the letter, but keep the main topic in mind as your write.

    (iii)   Paragraph 4(conclusion): Extend greetings to people known to both of you.

    1. Complimentary close: – Yours sincerely,



    Your friend who lives abroad has written to ask about the cost of living in Nigeria. In a reply, tell him about the situation, include the rise in the prices of commodities and whatever else that make living more expensive nowadays.


    Match each idiom in the left column with its explanation in the right column.

    1. to anxiously listen to a person to show ones colour
    2. to be annoyed to hand on someone’s lips
    3. to reveal one’s character to play one’s card close to one’s chest
    4. to make one’s actions to go off the deep end
    5. to beware of losing one’s to pay off an old grudge

    importance or superior position

    1. to treat someone badly because to look to one’s laurel.

    of an old unfriendly action

    1. to persevere in spite of odds to stay the course
    2. to nerve oneself to act to take one’s courage in both hands.  


    Section A

    Select the word that is closet in meaning to the italicized one in each sentence from the alternatives labelled A – E

    1. Uche is an itinerant trader generous     B. roving     C. wholesale     D. petty    E. export
    2. The girl refused to take part in the perilous trip expensive   B. famous    C. risky   D. pleasant    E. unpopular
    3. A jubilant crowd cheered the politician after the rally. sad    B. anxious    C. happy    D. large    E. weary
    4. I was fortunate to win the prize. happy    B. anxious    C. lucky    D. determined   E. unfortunate
    5. He did not supply the goods as his client did not meet his financial obligation bill    B. bargain    C .receipt     D. responsibility     E. means

    Section B

    Section A; Continuous Assessment, Unit 9, no 1 – 5 (Effective English)

    See also

    Essay Writing (Formal Letters): Letters of Complaints

    Structure – Punctuation Marks; Comma, Semicolon, Question Mark and Colon



    Review of Tenses

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