Some diseases are caused by lack of or shortage of specific nutrients in the meals we take, when this happens one begins to show signs of health imbalance. When a diseases is caused due to excess or lack of specific nutrient, the diseases are called malnutrition. To correct this, an intake of the nutrient which is lacking should be increased. Therefore malnutrition means imbalance of nutrient intake due to the consumption of too little or too much of one or many nutrients. There are two types of malnutrition:
Under nutrition which is a condition resulting from an inadequate intake of food or poor utilization of nutrients in food; while over nutrition means excessive intake of one or more of the to the detriment of the proper functioning in the body system.
- Kwashiorkor: It is mostly common in children it is caused largely by lack of protein in the diet.
Symptoms: Enlarge stomach
Hair changes color and looks thin
The child looks miserable
Skin becomes scaly
Retardation of growth and development.
Treatment: Protein food should be increased in the child diet
- Marasmus: This is a protein-calorie deficiency diseases
Symptoms: Growth is stunted
The child looks like an old person or a living skeleton.
Body tissue wastes away and becomes saggy, rather than firm.
Treatment: The child’s diet should have high protein content esp animal protein.
It should contain other protein food, mixture should be given to increase the calorie according to child’s age, but gradually administered.
- Anemia: The deficiency is caused by inadequacy of Iron in the diet. It is common with children and women, women lose blood regularly during menstruation and during child-birth.
Symptoms: Weakness, fainting, paleness of skin.
Treatment: The diet intake should include liver, eggs, spinach,etc . Assignment: List other 5 dietary deficiencies, symptoms, and their treatments.