Mineral elements are also required in a very minor quantity by the body. They are inorganic in nature and perform a variety of functions like growth and vital metabolic activities. Mineral elements are usually classified into two groups.

  1. Macro elements.
  2. Micro elements.

The macro elements are also called trace elements and they include sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, chlorine, Sculpture and phosphorus while the micro elements are iron, copper, zinc, manganese, iodine, fluorine, cobalt, selenium and chromium.

The macro elements

Calcium (CA): functions development of strong and health teeth.

  • It controls cell activities.
  • It is essential for blood clothing.
  • Transmission of nerve rhythmic hearth beat.
  • Aids normal functioning of the muscle.

Food sources of calcium are; milk and milk water, hard water, sea food, green vegetables, fruits.

MAGNESIUM (Mg): functions; development of bones

  • Regulates muscles contraction.
  • it is responsible for the transmission of nerve

Food sources of magnesium are hard water, sea food and nuts.

PHOSPHORUS (P): functions; development of bones.

  • Maintenance of acid­ – base balance of body fluids.
  • For storage and release of energy.
  • Essential for the reproduction of cells.

Food sources are; green vegetables, egg yolks, sea food, liver, cereals, meat, pulses, lime.

SODIUM (Na): functions; maintenance of cell

  • It aids the secretion of hydro chloric acid in the stomach.

Food sources are; table salt, meat, milk, cheese, egg, sea food, green vegetables, and poultry.

SULPHUR (S): functions; essential for the development of hair and nails and for the formation of connecting tissues.

Food sources of Sulphur are; cabbage, meat, fish, egg and nuts.

POTASSIUM (K) : functions; maintenance of cell membrane permeability.

  • It is involved in electrolyte balance in the body.
  • it is meant for nervous irritability and muscle contraction

Food sources are ; meat, potatoes, banana, peanuts, carrot, orange, grape fruit, butter.


MICRO mineral elements

IRON(Fe) : functions ; essential for the formation of heamoglobin of red blood cell.

Food sources are meat, liver, kidney, green vegetables, legumes, whole cereals.

FLUORINE(F) : functions ;important in the development of strong bones  and healthy teeth.

  • Prevents dental decay.

food sources are ; fluoridation of drinking water and tooth paste.



Water is very important for the existence of man. the chemical composition of water is hydrogen and oxygen.[H2O]. It has no energy value. it is neutral, colorless, odorless and tasteless. Water makes up about two thirds of the total body composition. It is important in regulating body processes.

functions of water in the body

  1. water serves as the medium for the transportation of substances from one part of the body to another.
  2. it regulates the body temperature.
  3. it quenches thirst.
  4. Assists in the excretion of waste products from the body e.g. urea, which is excreted by the kidneys and passed out as urine.
  5. Water aids the digestion of foods and absorption of nutrients.
  6. It keeps the lining membranes of organs moist e.g. bone joints, eyes i.e. it acts as a lubricant.

Sources: the main source of water for the body is the drinking water. it also come into the body through beverages, beer and some other foods we consume.


See also





food and nutrition

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