Biology

Biology

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Life defined through observations of activities carried out by living things;   Nutrition Nutrition is the processes by which food/nutrients are acquired/made and utilized by living organisms. Green plants and certain bacteria make their own food. All other organisms feed on complex organic materials.   Respiration This is the breakdown of

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Biology

CHROMOSOME: THE BASIS OF HEREDITARY

CHROMOSOME: THE BASIS OF HEREDITARY  – FULL EXPLANATION   LOCATION AND STRUCTURE OF CHROMOSOMES Chromatin granules (thread – like structures) found in the nucleus of eucaryotic cells are the precursors or raw materials of chromosomes.   Chromosomes occur in pairs known as homologous chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of two threads called chromatids joined

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Biology

SEX-LINKED TRAITS

SEX-LINKED TRAITS   Sex–linked traits are characteristics whose genes are carried on the X chromosome of the sex chromosomes instead of autosomes. Such genes are inherited along with such X chromosomes. They are all controlled by a recessive gene. Examples of Sex-linked traits are: colour blindness, haemophilia, baldness, sickle cell anaemia and albinism. Colour blindness: A

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Biology

DIHYBRID INHERITANCE

DIHYBRID INHERITANCE   Gregor Mendel crossed plants which differ in two pairs of contrasting characteristics e.g. seed shape (round or wrinkled seeds) and seed colour (yellow or green seeds). He crossed plants having round and yellow seeds with these having wrinkled and green seeds. The F1 seeds were having round and yellow seeds. Self-pollinating F1 plants

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Biology

BIOLOGY OF HEREDITARY AND VARIATION

BIOLOGY OF HEREDITARY AND VARIATION (GENETICS)   DEFINITIONS OF GENETIC TERMS What is Genetics? Genetics is the scientific study of heredity and variation in all living things. The word genetics was coined by Dilliam Bateson (1906). What is hereditary?: Hereditary/Inheritance is the transmission and expression of characters or traits from parents to offspring. It accounts for

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Biology

HEREDITARY VARIATION AND CAUSES

HEREDITARY VARIATION AND CAUSES   What is Hereditary? Hereditary variation is the differences among individuals which can be passed from the parents to their offspring (progenies). NOTE: No two offspring inherit exactly the same set of characteristics from parents except in identical twins. Hereditary variation arises because of Genetic reshuffling during meiosis due to independent assortment

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Biology

MENDELS WORK IN GENETICS

MENDELS WORK IN GENETICS   In the study of genetics, Gregor Mendel (1866) worked with the garden pea. (Pisumsativum)  because of three unique properties present in it. These are Peas are self-pollinating They have a very short lifespan They have several unique genetic characteristics e.g. round or wrinkled seeds, tallness or shortness, seeds /pods/ flowers colouration,

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Biology

SOCIAL ANIMALS – MEANING, CHARACTERISTICS, IMPORTANCE,

SOCIAL ANIMALS – MEANING, CHARACTERISTICS, IMPORTANCE & LIFE HISTORY   Social animals are those in which individuals of the same species live together cooperatively in organized communities known as societies (colonies). Examples of social animals are: social insects (like termites, honey bees or wasps, ants etc), wolves, foxes, baboons etc.   Characteristics of Social Insects

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Biology

THEORIES OF EVOLUTION

THEORIES OF EVOLUTION   ORGANIC EVOLUTION Organic evolution is the sum total of adaptive changes from pre–existing or old forms that has taken place over a long time resulting in diversity of forms, structures and functions among organism. The basis of evolution is that all organisms have pre–existing ancestors.    Evidences of evolution Fossil record: A

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Biology

VARIATION IN POPULATION

VARIATION IN POPULATION   Population is a group of organisms of the same specie living in a specified area within a given period of time. Variation refers to the differences which exist between individuals of the same species Types of variations Morphological variation Physiological variation.   Morphological variation is the noticeable physical appearance of individuals of

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Biology

ADAPTATION FOR SURVIVAL

ADAPTATION FOR SURVIVAL  COMPETITION Competition is the process by which living organisms in the habitat struggle with one another for limited essential needs in the environment. Such scarce resources in plants include; light, space, nutrient and water while animals complete for food, space or mate. Competition finally results in survival of the fittest and elimination

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