Cold Boot: when the user switches on a computer after it has been power off completely,

Warm Boot: when the user restarts the computer.

When the booting process takes place, it copies kernel and important instructions of an operating system from hard disk to main memory (RAM). The kernel is the most important part of the operating system that manages memory and devices, maintains computer clock, and starts applications.

It assigns compute resources like devices, programs, data, and information also. The kernel also remains in memory permanently when the computer starts.


Steps in the Booting Process

Booting is a process of switching on the computer and starting the operating system. Six steps of the booting process are BIOS and Setup Program, The Power-On-Self-Test (POST), The Operating System Loads, System Configuration, System Utility Loads and Users Authentication.


Booting process

1: BIOS and Setup Program

2: The Power-On-Self-Test (POST)

3: The Operating System (OS) Loads

4: System Configuration

5: System Utility Loads

6: Users Authentication


Step 1: BIOS and Setup Program

ROM (read-only memory): it is a permanent and unchanging memory also

BIOS (basic input/output system): the part of the system software that includes the instructions that the computer uses to accept input and output

Load: to transfer from a storage device to memory. The ROM loads BIOS into the computer’s memory

Setup program: a special program containing settings to control hardware.  Furthermore, the program can only be accessed while the BIOS information is visible


Step 2: The Power-On-Self-Test (POST)

POST (Power-On Self-Test): a series of tests conducted on the computer’s main memory, input/output devices, disk drives, and the hard disk.

BIOS conduct Power-On-Self-Test to check the input/ output system for operability.

The computer will produce a beeping sound if any problem occurs. An error message will also appear on the monitor


Step 3: The Operating System (OS) Loads

BIOS searches for the operating system.

Setting in CMOS: complementary metal oxide semiconductor determines where to look for the operating system.

In this step, the operating system’s kernel is also loaded into the computer’s memory.

The operating system takes control of the computer and begins loading system configuration information.


Step 4: System Configuration

Registry: a database to store information about peripherals and software

Peripheral: a device connected to a computer

Drive: a utility program that makes peripheral devices function properly

The operating system’s registry configures the system.

In this step, drivers are also loaded into memory.


Step 5: System Utility Loads

System utilities are loaded into memory.

Volume control

Antivirus software

PC card unplugging utility


Step 6: Users Authentication  or user login occurs



After all this process, the user interface starts, enabling user interaction with the computer and its programs also.


Strategies & Activities:

Step: Teacher revises the previous topic.

Step 2: Teacher introduces the new topic.

Step3: Teacher explains the new topic.

Step4: Teacher welcomes pupils’ questions.

Step5: Teacher evaluates the pupils.


Assessment & Evaluation:

  1. Define booting the computer
  2. State the types of booting


  1. Define booting.
  2. State the 2 types of booting.


See also






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