Abortion is the deliberate termination of a human pregnancy, most often performed during the first 28 weeks. It is the ending of pregnancy by removing a foetus or embryo before it can survive outside the uterus. An abortion that occurs spontaneously is also known as a miscarriage. An abortion may be caused purposely and is then called an induced abortion.



There are two main types of abortion and they are;

(i)   SpontaneousAbortion(ii)Induced Abortion


Spontaneous Abortion is an unintentional abortion caused as a result of faulty development of embryo, abnormality of placenta, hormonal disturbances, acute infection, severe trauma or shock. It is commonly called miscarriage.


Induced Abortion is the intentional removal of foetus. Induced abortion can either be surgical or medical.

(a) Medical Abortion: This is the abortion done or induced with the use if one or more pills

(b) Surgical Abortion: This form involves minor surgical operation to induce abortion.



The following are some of the reasons why people engage in abortion:

  1. Teenage pregnancy or unwanted pregnancy.
  2. Pregnancy as a result of rape.
  3. Poverty and lack of financial capacity to care for the unborn child.
  4. Medical complication at the onset of the pregnancy that may endanger the life if the mother or the foetus.
  5. Lack of readiness.



An unsafe abortion is the abortion done without proper medical supervision. Unsafe abortion is usually by using over-the-counter drugs or carried out by quack medical practitioners.

Teenagers are lured to unsafe abortion for the following reasons:

  1. The fears of letting someone know about their pregnancy.
  2. To avoid social stigma.
  3. To protect their education and future.


As convincing as they sound, these reasons don’t weigh up to the consequences that comes with unsafe abortion. The following are the consequences of unsafe abortion:

  1. Unsafe abortion may lead to the damage of internal organs like the womb.
  2. It is painful and horrible.
  3. Teenager can get infected from the unsafe process of abortion which may cause more severe disease like uterine fibroid.
  4. It leads to the death of the teenagers.
  5. It endangers the teenager as the quack doctor may further molest her.
  6. There is a psychological breakdown if the teenager cannot endure going through the abortion.



The following can help prevent abortion or reasons to abortion:

  1. Abstinence: Teenagers should avoid having any until they are physically and psychologically matured to take responsibility.
  2. Avoid unsafe and unprotected by using condoms.
  3. Women should go for medical checkup to prevent medical complication during pregnancy.
  4. Keep responsible friends and partner.
  5. Create a mindset against abortion.
  6. Meet your school counselor for advice on abstinence.
  7. Avoid sex promoting/pornographic content.
  8. Always remember that the negative consequences of abortion outweigh the benefits.



Teenagers need help on what to do when faced with abortion related challenges. Here are some of the things you can do when faced with a challenge:

  1. Talk to your parents about the about the situation
  2. Meet a counselor for an advice on what to do.
  3. There are also teenagers-support NGOs that can help.
  4. Join a school social club against teenage pregnancy and abortion. E.g. anti AIDS club.
  5. Join a true religious or social body that can help with teenage pregnancy and abortion related issues.


See also

Water and Chemical Pollution

Air and Noise Pollution

Environmental Health

Classes of food


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