Contrasting stress

The stressing of a particular word more than other words in a sentence is referred to as emphatic or contrastive stress. Such as a stress normally have its implications in terms of the meaning of the sentence.


  1. JAMES borrowed the novel (i.e James not anybody else borrowed it)
  2. James BORROWED the novel. (i.e. James didn’t, for example, steal or buy the novel, he borrowed it.)
  3. We MUST honour the invitation. (wether we like it or not)
  4. I BOUGHT the book. (I didn’t steal it)
  5. This is THE Mr. Obi. (of special fame)

Evaluation: Test on Emphatic stress, page 255, countdown to English

Topic: Comprehension: Meteors

The passage is adopted from the New Atlas of the Universe by Patrick More. It centre on Meteors, the junior member of th solar system. They are small and very plentiful in the solar system. There are two types of Meteors; showers and sporadic meteor.

Evaluation: Questions, Page 152


Vocabulary: Astronomy

The lexis and structures on the vocabulary of astronomy.

Some of the words used include universe, orbits, planets, eclipse, cosmonaut, satellite, galaxies, etc.

 Astronomy: the Scientifics study of the universe, especially of the motions, positions, sizes, composition, and behaviour of astronomical objects.

 Universe: the totality of all matter and energy that exists in the vastness of space, whether known to human beings or not.

 Planet: an astronomical object that orbits a star and does not shine with its own light, especially one of those orbiting the sun in the solar system.

 Stars: an astronomical object usually visible as a small bright point of light in the sky.

 Orbit: a single revolution an astronomical object around a larger astronomical object.

 Cosmonaut: an astronaut in the space programmes of Russia and the formal Soviet Union.

 Galaxies: a group of billions of stars and their planets, gas and dust that extends over many thousands of light-years and forms a unit within the universe.

 Eclipse: the partial or complete hiding from view of an astronomical object, e.g. the Sun or Moon, when another astronomical object comes between it and the observer.

 Astronaut: someone trained to travel and perform tasks in space.

 Gravity: the attraction due to gravitation that the Earth or another astronomical object exerts on an object on or near its surface.

Evaluation: vocabulary, page 153

Reading Assignment: Nominalization of infinitives.

 Weekend Assignment: Revision and tests part 1, page 161, Effective English. Exercise 11, question b, page 101, Oral English for Schools and Colleges.


See also

Direct and Indirect Speech

Vocabulary: Latin Expression used in English

Speech Writing

Clauses | Definition, Types & Functions

Trigonometric functions

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