Data are raw, unorganized or unprocessed facts that need to be processed. Data can be something simple and seemingly random and useless until it is organised.
Table of Contents
TYPES OF DATA
- Qualitative data i.e descriptive information
- Quantitative data i.e numeric information
SUBDIVISION OF QUANTITATIVE DATA
- Continuous data: this can take any value. It is also known as measured data. It can take value within a range e.g 0-99, 10-20 etc.
- Discrete data: this type of data is whole in nature. It is not continuous. It takes a whole numbers and also called Counted data.
FORMS OF DATA
- Numeric i. e 0-9
- Letters i.e a-z or A-Z
- Symbols e.g + , _ , * , % , = , <, >, etc
EXAMPLES OF DATA
Numbers, name of thing, place or animal, words, measurements, observations, descriptions of things etc.
SOURCES OF DATA
Data can come from different sources depending on the importance of the data. The following are sources of data: television, internet, articles, government documents and public records, newspaper, textbooks, biographies.
- Define data.
- Explain the two types of data.
- Mention any five sources of data.
This refers to data that have been converted into a more meaningful and useful form. It refers to a processed data that is meaningful to the user.
EXAMPLES OF INFORMATION
- Student ID card
- Weather reports
- Student’s report card
- International passport
- Utility bills e.g PHCN bills, Water bills
SOURCES OF INFORMATION
Internet, Database, Magazine/ Newspaper, Census board, Documents, Observation etc
CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD INFORMATION
- Relevance: it must be relevant and good enough for its purpose.
- Reliability: it must come from a reliable source.
- Accuracy: it must be an end product of processed data. That is, it must be error-free.
- Availability: it must be available and communicated to the user as at when it is needed.
- Suitability: it must be expressed in the form the user of the information can understand it and of suitable for its purpose.
This the process of ensuring that research data is stored, archived or disposed off in a safe and secure manner during and after the conclusion of a research project.
WAYS OF HANDLING DATA
- Electronic methods: Data can be handled electronically ensures data integrity. It includes personal digital assistants (PDA), storage media, CD/DVD, MEMORY CARDS etc.
- Non-Electronic methods: This method includes paper files, journals and laboratory notebooks. It is basically called manual method in which human energy and effort are used to process data.
- Mention any five sources of information.
- Differentiate between data and information.
- State any three forms of data.
- Mention the two types of data
- What is the difference between continuous data and discrete data?
- ……..are raw facts which have not undergone processing.
- Information B. Data C. Record D. None
- One of the characteristics of good information has to do with the correctness of information. A. reliability B. availability C. accuracy D. none
- ……..refers to the information that has been processed.
- Data B. Information C. Database D. None
- There are ……… types of data. A. 2 B. 3 C. 4 D. 8
- The process of surfing the NET to get information for further research is …….
- primary source B. on-line C. secondary source D. None
- Mention and explain the two ways of handling data.
- Explain at least four characteristics of good information.