## ELECTRO-MECHANICAL COUNTING DEVICES

Electro-mechanical counting devices are those counting devices that could be operated both electrically and mechanically

These includes the following

- Blaise Pascal Machine
- Gottfried Leibniz Machine
- Joseph Jacquard Loom
- Charles Babbage Analytical Engine

## BLAISE PASCAL CALCULATING MACHINE:

Blaise Pascal was a French man who invented a new kind of computer in 1642. The machine consisted of wheels for the individual digits in a number. Each wheel had ten notches, numbered “0” to “9”. When a wheel was turned seven notches. It added 7 to the total on the machine. Blaise Pascal Calculating Machine and not Electra-mechanical like others listed below.

## GOTTFRIED LEIBNIZ MACHINE

The Gottfried Leibniz machine, also known as the “Leibniz Wheel” or “Stepped Reckoner,” was a mechanical calculator invented by the German mathematician and philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz around 1673.

This machine was designed to perform various arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. It was an advancement of earlier mechanical calculators and played a significant role in the history of computing devices.

### Key Features of the Leibniz Machine

1. Stepped Drum Mechanism:

The core component of the Leibniz machine is the stepped drum, also known as the Leibniz wheel. It consists of a cylindrical drum with a set of staggered teeth of varying lengths. When rotated, these teeth interact with other gears to perform calculations.

2. Arithmetic Operations:

a. Addition and Subtraction: The machine could easily handle these basic operations by turning the crank, which moved the gears and drums to produce the desired result.

b. Multiplication and Division: More complex operations like multiplication and division were achieved through repeated addition and subtraction, facilitated by the stepped drum mechanism.

3. Manual Operation:

The user manually entered numbers using a set of dials or sliders and then turned a crank to perform the calculations. Results were displayed on a set of rotating dials.

4. Advancements Over Previous Machines:

While earlier mechanical calculators, such as Blaise Pascal’s Pascaline, could only perform addition and subtraction, the Leibniz machine was capable of handling all four basic arithmetic operations, making it more versatile and advanced for its time.

### Historical Significance

**Influence on Future Calculators:**

The principles of the Leibniz machine, particularly the stepped drum mechanism, influenced the design of later mechanical calculators in the 19th and early 20th centuries.

**Contributions to Computing:**

Leibniz’s work on this machine demonstrated the feasibility of automating complex calculations, paving the way for future developments in mechanical and electronic computing.

**Philosophical and Mathematical Contributions:**

Beyond the machine itself, Leibniz’s work reflected his broader interests in logic, mathematics, and the potential for machines to extend human capabilities in computation and reasoning.

Although the Leibniz machine faced practical challenges, such as mechanical complexity and reliability issues, it remains an important milestone in the history of computing.

It showcased innovative ideas and mechanisms that would eventually lead to the development of more sophisticated calculating devices and, ultimately, modern computers.

## CHARLES BABBAGE ANALYTICAL ENGINE/MACHINE:

Babbage is credited with inventing the first mechanical computer that eventually led to more difficult designs.

He sought a method by which mathematical tables could be calculated mechanically, removing the high rate of human error.

He began in 1822 with what he called difference engine made to compute values of polynomial functions, the machine calculates series of values automatically by using the method of finite differences.

Later in 1833, Babbage invented the analytical machine which is more complex that the difference engine and this analytical engine, could be programmed using punch cards.

Computer memory is referred to as computer components, devices and recorded media that retains digital data used for computing for some period of time. Computer memory or storage device are broadly classified into primary memory and secondary memory.

## Evaluation:

- Mention four electro mechanical counting device
- Mention the uses of Pascal’s Machine
- In what year was difference and analytical engine invented.

Peace AtingHello Sir. Just gone through your Posts on ICT . Do you operate an online lesson on ICT?

Mr. SamuelThis is directly an online lesson. We don’t plan to ask for payment or password our lesson to make users register or pay before using the lesson here. If we have any other methods or plans. we will communicate them to you. Thank you

Mr. SamuelNo, We don’t for now. Thank you very much