The terms egg applies not only to those of the hen but also to the edible eggs of other birds such as turkeys, geese, ducks, guinea fowl, quails, etc.
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Egg generally has a structure which is spherical; one end is pointed more than the other end, which is blunt. The egg has a fairly strong protective covering called shell. The shell colour depends on the fowl that laid them. The yolk also differs; some are yellowish while some are creamy white.
FOOD VALUE OF EGG
- Protein: Eggs are rich in protein of high value, therefore can be used to replace meat, poultry and fish in the diet.
- Minerals and Vitamins: Eggs contain vitamin A, B- complex and D. They contain mineral salts such as iron, sulphur, phosphorus and calcium.
- Fat: The yolk of an egg contains appreciable amount of fat.
- Water: 51% of the yolk is water while the white part contains 87% water. This shows that eggs contain a reasonable amount of water.
However, eggs do not contain carbohydrate or starch.
GRADING OF HENS EGG
Small: 53g or under
Medium: 53 – 63g
Large: 63 – 73g
Very large: 73g
- Draw and label an egg.
- List three nutrients that egg contains.
USES OF EGGS
- Eggs are used to increase food value and improve the flavour of foods e.g. pancake, doughnut, etc.
- As a binding agent e.g. in yam balls, fish cake, etc.
- For coating foods before frying e.g. fish, yam ball, etc.
- As a thickening agent e.g. egg custard, sauces, etc.
- As a raising agent e.g. sponge cake, pancake, etc.
- For glazing e.g. pastry, bread, biscuits, etc. before baking.
- For garnishing e.g. salad.
- Eggs are valuable in the diet especially for children, invalids and convalescents.
FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN CHOOSING EGGS
- The shell of fresh eggs should be slightly rough.
- When broken, the yolk should be intact and surrounded by the egg white.
- When held towards a source of light, it should be clear and bright, not opaque.
- There should be no offensive odour when the egg is broken.
- If shaken, no sound should be produced.
- When immersed in salted water, it should sink and not float.
- The shell should be intact and not broken.
METHOD OF COOKING EGGS
Egg Dishes include:
- Scotch egg
- Scrambled egg
- Fried egg
- Egg custard
- Egg sauce, etc.
- State three uses of eggs.
- Mention four ways of checking the freshness of an egg.
Fish are sea foods or creatures which live in water (both fresh and hard/salt water). Fish is more easily digestible than meat.
CLASSIFICATION OF FISH
Fish is classified into two groups, which are:
- FIN FISH
These are those ones that have fins on their bodies. They are of two types:
- a) White/Lean Fish: They are those that have oil stored in their livers but not between their muscle fibres. White fish are easily digestible and suitable for invalid. Examples are:
– Brill, etc.
- b) Oily/Fat Fish: These have their fat distributed all over their body especially among the fibres. The have dark looking flesh due to the presence of oil in the body. Examples of oily fish are:
– Sardine, etc.
- SHELL FISH
Shell fish have protective shell covering their flesh. They are divided into two:
- a) Molluscs: These have soft body protected by a single hard inedible shell. Examples are:
– Oysters, etc.
- b) Crustaceans: These have their body divided into different segment with each segment covered with a crust like shell. Examples are:
– Lobster, etc.
- Define the word ‘Fish’.
- Write the classification of fish with examples.
FOOD VALUE OF FISH
- Protein: Fish contains a large proportion of protein. Dried fish has a high food value because it weighs more protein than fresh fish.
- Fat: Oily fish have more fat than white fish.
- Vitamin: Oily fish is rich in vitamin A and D.
- Mineral salts: Fish contain calcium which is present in the bone. Sea fish contain iodine as well.
- Water: All fish contain water but white fish contain more water than oily fish.
These refer to different ways to which whole fish is cut before preparation for cooking. They are:
- Whole or Round fish: Just taken from the water and marketed, nothing has been removed from it.
- Drawn fish: The entrails (intestines and gills) have been removed.
- Dressed fish; This has the head, fin, tail and scales removed.
- Steaks: Cross-section cuts/slices from a large dressed fish. Each slice is cut with the back bone. It is the common way of cutting fish before cooking in most homes.
- Fillets: The sides of the fish is cut length-wise away from the backbone. It is practically boneless.
- List and explain three types of fish cut.
- Briefly describe the nutritive value of fish.
FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN BUYING FISH
- Select fish with bright eyes.
- The flesh must be firm and stiff, not flabby.
- The fish must not have unpleasant odour.
- The gills should be bright and red in colour.
- The scales should be bright, shinning and plentiful.
- Frozen fish should be solidly frozen when purchased. There should be no discolouration and offensive odour.
METHODS OF COOKING FISH
- Grilling and roasting
- State five uses of eggs
- List the classification of fish.
- List and explain types of game.
- What are fire fighting equipment?
- Mention five ways of preventing accident in the kitchen.
- Which of these is an oily fish? A. Herring Halibut C. Crab D. Skate
- Crayfish is an example of ____ A. fin fish shell fish C. oily fish D. general fish
- The following nutrients are present in eggs except ____ A. protein B. water C. carbohydrate D. fat
- The inner yellowish part of an egg is called the ____ A. albumen B. airspace chalaza
- Which of these is an offal? A. Brain B. Sirloin C. leg beef D. Rump steak
- State three uses of eggs in cookery.
- State two ways of checking for the freshness of fish.