Employment means having a job or work to do to earn a living. A person may do his or her own work or may work for other people, or even the government. If you are doing your own work, you are said to be self-employed. If you are working for government or other people, you are called an employee of those people or the government, and the people or government that employed you are your employers.


Jobs open to people in the locality

A job is work, for which payment is made when it is completed. Jobs that are open to people in our community include the following:

1 Trading

2 Carpentry or interior decoration

3 Tailoring/fashion designing

4 Farming

5 Shoe making

6 Teaching

7 Nursing

8 Banking

9 Printing

10 Engineering

11 Catering and hotel management

12 Publishing

13 Medicines


Some people are self-employed while others are employed by other individuals and organizations. People who is self-employed work for themselves, and whatever they produce becomes their own. They can use the products or sell them to those who need them.

A person who is employed by another person or an organisation works, and is paid a salary by his/her employer at the end of the month.


Why people should be employed

People should be employed for the following reasons:

1 So that they can earn a living.

2 To keep them busy and out of trouble.

3 So that they will contribute to the development of society.

4 So that they will be responsible members of society.

5 When people work and earn an income, they are happy.


The meaning of unemployment

Unemployment means not having a job to do. People who do not have a means of livelihood (i.e., of making money) or that are not engaged in a job are said to be unemployed. Some people have just left one job and they are yet to get another job. For example, a bricklayer may have just completed building one house, and may have to wait to be hired to build another. A person may have been sacked or removed from one job and is yet to get another one. During this period of waiting, he or she is unemployed. A school leaver who is still searching for work is also unemployed.


Consequences (bad results) of unemployment in our society

The following are some of the consequences of unemployment in our society:

1 When people are unemployed, they become sad and idle, and may develop bad habits such as stealing or prostitution.

2 Some people who do not have work become unhappy and may begin to take hard drugs, such as Indian hemp and cocaine, thinking this would help them overcome the frustration of unemployment. Soon they become drug addicts and problems for themselves and society.

3 Some people who are unemployed may become frustrated and unhappy and after a while, begin to beg for money. This brings shame to them and their families.

4 School leavers who fail to get work turn to their parents for support. This may become a big burden and sorrow for the parents.

5 When people fail to get employment, they may not be able to provide their needs and solve their problems because they do not have money. They may begin to think about their problem and worry too much about their condition, and this may affect their health.

6 Unemployment makes big towns and large cities over-crowded, because most people who are unemployed go there, thinking they would get jobs.

7 Many youths marry late because they do not have jobs to provide for themselves and a new family.


Unemployment can be reduced in the following ways

1 The government and rich people in our society should help create jobs by setting up factories, industries and business outfits, so that people can work in such places and be useful to themselves and society.

2 Banks should help people who are not employed to set up their own businesses by giving them loans under conditions that they can bear.

3 Young people should be advised to study subjects that will make it easy for them to get work, so that when they leave school, they can become self-employed or easily get employed by others.

4 Government should encourage people who are looking for jobs to work on farm settlements or other similar government projects.

5 Government should set up training organizations to train people in different fields so as to make them self-employed. People can, for instance, train to make baskets and furniture, or train to be farmers and food producers.

6 Government should encourage farmers by making it easy for them to get farmland, farming equipment, fertilizers and electricity.

7 Government should construct good roads in the rural areas and provide constant electricity for all, so that people can establish workshops and industries and run such industries without difficulty.

8 Sometimes, wicked and unpatriotic people reserve employment opportunities only for their relations, some of which are still in school. When such people are caught, they should be punished severely.


Strategies & Activities

Step 1: Teacher revises the previous topic.

Step 2: Teacher introduces the new topic.

Step3: Teacher explains the new topic.

Step4: Teacher welcomes pupils’ questions.

Step5: Teacher evaluates the pupils.


Assessment & Evaluation

1 defines employment.

2 define unemployment.

3 mention five consequences of unemployment in the society.

4 mention four ways you can reduce unemployment.



A Choose the best answers for the following questions.

1 ____________ means having a job or work to do to earn a living.

A Employment B Occupation C Working

2 We can be employed by working for ____________.

A thugs B the government C nobody

3 One who works for others is known as ____________.

A an employee B an employer C a messenger

4 One who does his own work and not for others is ____________.

A self-reliant B self-employed C sufficient

5 When people work and earn a living, they are ________.

A unhappy B happy C covetous


See also

harmful substances

Harmful substances

drug abuse

Categories of Drugs

Ways of preventing drug abuse

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