SS 3 Chemistry (1st Term)

Chemistry

AMINES AND AMIDES

AMINES It has a functional group of NH2. GENERAL MOLECULAR FORMULAR/STRUCTURE It has a general molecular formula of RNH2 or structure of              R – N – H H PREPARATION: They are derivatives of ammonia where one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by alkyl or aryl groups e.g. RNHz, R2NH.   CLASSIFICATION: Amines can […]

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Chemistry

CARBOHYDRATES

Carbohydrates are naturally occurring organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygenwith oxygen in the ratio 1:2 as in water.  The general molelcular formula of carbohydrates is Cx(H2O)y  or  CxH2yOy.  Carbohydrates are generally polydroxyl aldehydes, ketones or any compound that on hydrolysis yields any of the polyhydroxides.  They are synthesized in green plants by photosynthesis.  

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Chemistry

NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC POLYMERS

NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC POLYMERS Polymerisation (addition and condensation) plastics.    Thermosplastic and thermosetting polymers, resins.     Polymer is the final product, macromolecule of high molecular mars.  It consists of a repeating units and its general molecular formula may be represented as [repeating units]n where n is a very large whole number. N.B:-    All polymers are

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Chemistry

Fats and Oils As Higher Esters

Sources, properties and uses detergents and soaps Structure, their mode and action. Fats and oils belong to a general group of compounds known as lipids. SOURCES Fats are solids that usually come from animals e.g. Tallow (mutton fat).  Oils are liquids that come from plants e.g. vegetable oil, coconut oil etc.  Both fat and oil

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Chemistry

ALKANOIC ACIDS

ALKANOATES General molecular formula, nomenclature,  preparation,  properties and uses.   SOURCES The alkanoic acid or carboxylic acids are also called fatty acids because some of them are found in natural fats and oils.  They contain the functional group called carboxy group.   NOMENCLATURE The IUPAC name of each homologue is obtained by changing the “-e”

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Chemistry

ALKANOLS

SOURCES OF ALKANOLS –           From destructive distillation wood. –           From starchy food and sugar   General molecular formular Alkanol is a homologous series with general molecular formular of Cn H2n+1OH or ROH. Or (CnH2n+2O).   Nomenclature The names of alkanols are obtained by substituting “e” in alkanes with “Ol” in alkanol e.g. methanol (CH3OH), ethanol

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Chemistry

AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

Benzene: Benzene is a typical aromatic compound with molecular formula of C6H6.  It has the structure of: Preparation From coal tar: The destructive distillation of coal produced coal tar which contain      benzene From petreoleum; The dehydrogenated of alkane using valladim (v) oxide (v2O5) as     catalyst at 500oC and 20 atmos give benzene C6H14     V2O2C6H6  + 

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Chemistry

ALKYNES

Alkynes are the  homologous series of unsaturated hydrocarbon  with a general molecular formua CnH2n-2. Alkynes show a high degree of unsaturation than alkenes, hence,t hey are chemically more reactive than the corresponding alkenes or alkanes. Examples are : H H – C = C – H                           HC  – C =  C- H [ Ethyne.                                              

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Chemistry

Unsaturated Hydrocarbons – Alkenes

UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS These are hydrocarbons in which carbon atoms join with each other by multiple bonds.  The multiple bond can be double bonds e.g Alkene or triple bonds e.g Alkyne. Ethene2 .Ethyne H – C = C – H                                       H – C = C – H H   H. Alkenes e.gEthene Nomenclature The process of naming

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Chemistry

Saturated Hydrocarbons

Saturated Hydrocarbons Saturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons consisting of  carbon chains with single bond between them  in which carbon joins with another carbon by single covalent bond e.g Alkanes ( like ethane C2H6, propane C3H8 )   H          H                                              HHH   H –   C          C – H                            H – C  –     C –     C – H

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