Animal feed can be classified based on various factors, including the ingredients used, the nutritional composition, and the target animal species. Here are some common classifications of animal feed:
1. Based on Ingredients:
a. Grain-based feed: Includes feeds primarily composed of grains like corn, wheat, barley, and sorghum.
b. Protein-based feed: Contains high levels of protein from sources such as soybean meal, fish meal, or other protein-rich ingredients.
c. Forage-based feed: Comprised of plant materials like hay, silage, or pasture that are suitable for grazing animals.
d. Fat-based feed: Contains a significant amount of fat or oil sources, such as vegetable oils or animal fats.
e. Byproduct-based feed: Utilizes byproducts from food processing industries, such as brewers’ grains, distillers’ grains, or wheat bran.
2. Based on Nutritional Composition:
a. Complete feed: Provides all the essential nutrients required for an animal’s growth and maintenance. It typically contains a balanced combination of grains, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and other necessary additives.
b. Concentrate feed: Has a high concentration of energy and protein, but may lack certain vitamins and minerals. It is often mixed with forage or other feeds to provide a balanced diet.
c. Supplemental feed: Provides additional nutrients to complement the primary diet. It may include specific additives like vitamins, minerals, or specialized supplements.
3. Based on Animal Species:
a. Ruminant feed: Designed for ruminant animals like cattle, sheep, and goats, which have a specialized digestive system to process high-fiber diets.
b. Poultry feed: Formulated for chickens, turkeys, ducks, and other poultry species. It often contains a combination of grains, protein sources, and essential minerals.
c. Swine feed: Tailored for pigs and includes grains, protein sources, vitamins, and minerals suitable for their nutritional needs.
d. Aquaculture feed: Developed for fish, shrimp, and other aquatic species. It may include fish meal, fish oil, plant proteins, and other ingredients to meet their dietary requirements.
e. Pet feed: Specifically formulated for dogs, cats, and other companion animals. It considers their unique nutritional needs and may come in various forms like dry kibble, wet food, or treats.
These classifications provide a general framework for categorizing animal feed, but it’s important to note that there can be significant variations and specialized feeds within each category, tailored to meet the specific needs of different animal species, production stages, and desired outcomes.
Animals feed can be classified according to the nutrients they supply into the following:
- Carbohydrates: these provide energy to farm animals for their activities such as growth, reproduction and milk production. Examples include maize, rice, millet.
- Protein: This is needed for growth and repair of worn-out tissues and fro production of antibodies. Examples of protein are fishmeal, bone meal, poultry offal, soya bean meal, groundnut cake, palm kernel cake and others.
- Fats and oil: This supply energy and keep the body temperature under control. Fats include palm oil, coconut meal, lard, cotton meal cake and so on.
- Minerals: These help to carry out vital body functions such as bone and teeth formation, blood clothing, egg shell formation and so on. Minerals include calcium, iron, phosphorus, iodine, potassium and others.
- Vitamins: These are required for proper growth and development of animal. They help to keep the animal healthy. Examples are vitamins A, B, C, D, E and K.
- Water: This is constituent of body fluid. It helps to regulate body temperature, digest (breakdown) food and lubricate joints.