Mining is defined as the extraction and processing of mineral resources into finished products.

 Mining of Gold

South Africa is the largest producer of gold in Africa, followed by Ghana, Zimbabwe and Zaire. 

Major mining areas include:

  1. Witwatersrand near Johannesburg (South Africa)
  2. Werksdorp and Welcom in South Africa

3. Dunkua and Tarkwa in Ghana

4. Gatoama and Gwanda in Zimbabwe.


Methods of Mining Gold

Gold is mined by the underground or shaft method. Here, vertical shafts are driven through a hole to reach the ore bearing rocks. Explosives are then used to fill the holes to shatter the rocks by blasting. The broken rocks are taken to the surface then to the concentrator that filters out the Gold which is later sent to the smelters for further refining and processing.


Transportation and Marketing

In South Africa, Gold is mainly transported by rail and road to processing factory or to Port Elizabeth or East London for export. Major market for Gold include the USA, Canada, Britain, Japan, Australia etc.



Petroleum or crude oil is an important fuel mineral produced in Nigeria, Libya Algeria, Egypt and Gabon.


Mining Areas

  1. Port-Harcourt and Warri in Nigeria.
  2. Mersa and Bregha in Libya.

iii.        Rahala Field near Ourgla in Algeria etc.

Method of Mining Petroleum

Petroleum is mined by drilling method (but refined and separated in different components by Fractional distillation method).

In the drilling method, the underground rocks are sampled and tested for traces of oil.  When the oil is discovered, a well is sunk to reach it with the aid of a drilling rig or derrick.  The oil is then pumped out mechanically or naturally if the pressure within the oil zone is very high.

In the soil, three (3) layers within the oil zone exist (i) Natural gas is found on top (ii) Petroleum or crude oil in the middle and (iii) water at the bottom.

Transportation and Marketing

Crude oil is transported mainly by Pipe lines either to the refineries for refining or to the ports for export. Major markets include Britain, Japan, Germany, South Africa, U.S.A etc. 


Copper is also a metallic mineral produced by Zambia, Zaire, South Africa and Zimbabwe.

Major Mining Areas.

(i)        Ndola, Nchanga and Chibuluma in Zambia

(ii)       Shaba province in Zaire especially around Lumumbashi and Kolwezi districts

(iii)      Messing in South Africa

(iv)      Uwkundu and Nankia in Zimbabwe. 

Methods of Mining Copper

Depending on the depth of the mineral in the soil, two methods are used to mine copper.

(a) Open cast method          (b) Underground or shaft method

 Open Cast Method

In this method, explosives are used to remove the over burden rocks and a machine called dragline is used to pile the copper washed into a heap. A monitor is used to direct a strong jet of water towards the heap.

The water washes the soil through a series of sluice boxes. In the process, the copper ore settles at the bottom of the sluice boxes while the water carries the dirt away. Finally, the copper concentrate is sent to the factory for smelting.

Transportation and Marketing:

Copper is transported by rail to the port of Beira in Mozambique through Zimbabwe because Zambia is a land locked country.

Roads are sometimes used to transport copper to the port of Dar-es-salaam in Tunisia for export.

Major market for copper includes European countries, Japan and the USA.


  1. The mining of minerals provide jobs for many people.
  2. They generate revenue to the government through the payment of company taxes, import and export duties.
  3. They also serve as foreign exchange to the government.
  4. They provide essential goods or products such as necklace, medals, kerosene, fuel etc to the people.
  5. Some mineral materials are essential for manufacturing industries, hence leads to growth of several industries.
  6. Minerals in an area can raise the standard of living of people in such areas e.g. the availability of crude oil in Port-Harcourt.
  7. Provision of social and basic amenities which in turns lead to the overall development of the area.
  8. Through the availability of mineral resources in an area, new skills are acquired by the people.
  9. They lead to growth of towns such as Johannesburg, capetown, Port-Harcourt, Warri, Takwa etc.
  10. They also lead to increase in socio economic activities. 


  1. Inadequate capital to exploit the minerals.
  2. Poor transport network.
  3. Poor technological know-how. This makes Africa to remain poor inspite of the vast mineral resources in the land.
  4. Out-dated topographical and geological maps.
  5. Difficult terrain increases operational cost.
  6. Fluctuations in world prices of minerals.
  7. There is problem of constant conflicts with the local people and the prospecting companies.
  8. High level of environmental pollution.
  9. Poor management due to government insensitivity and negligence.
  10. High rate of sabotage by unpatriotic people in the mining areas.

11.  Political instability in Africa.

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