Adaptability is the ability to change something or oneself to fit occurring changes. Adaptability is the ability of an individual to alter himself to the changed environment. It shows the ability to learn from experience and improve the fitness of the learner as well. Man adapt to his new environment with the help of environmental sanitation. Environmental sanitation can be refered to the activities aimed at improving or maintaining the standard of basic environmental conditions affecting the well-being of people.


These conditions include:

  1. Clean and safe water supply
  2. Clean and safe ambient air
  3. Efficient and safe animal, human and industrial waste disposal
  4. Protection of food from biological and chemical contaminants
  5. Adequate housing in clean and safe surrounding

Hence, it is also called environmental hygiene.


Types of Adaptability

  1. Social Adaptability: – It has to do with the adjustment of individual and group behaviour to conform with the prevailing system of norms and values in a given society. Social adaptation occurs in the process of socialization and also with the aid of mechanism of social control which includes social pressure.
  1. Physical adaptability: – Man has been able to live anywhere and to adapt to different environments or regions of the world. Man can effectively adapt to changing situations. Man’s ability to think about himself and his environment has enabled him to effectively adapt, survive, multiply and live in different environment of the world.Whether in the cold regions, in a desert, on top of the mountain or hot regions like Australia. Where the weather is too cold like Russian, he has learnt to use thick animal fur or thick cardigans to keep warm.


The following are other ways that man adapts to his environment.

  1. Man has used science and technology to transform his environment in many areas.For example, where rain is not plentiful for agriculture, man has built canal and made drainage systems for irrigation purposes.
  2. Man has invested cold storage for food items such as fish, meat and other perishable goods.
  3. Man has made different equipment and tools to improve his daily life. Man has been able to convert the nature’s resources to create wealth for his survival. Man has been able to adapt to any environment through the invention of science and technology.



  1. What is adaptability?
  2. Mention two types of adaptability.



  1. The following are by-products of science and technology except books B. Cars
  2. machines D. stars
  3. Which of the following is not a factor that influences man’s behaviour in his environment? A. belonging to some social groups. B. by knowing the norms of the society. C. going through the process of socialization D. limiting of him/her self to one’s language
  4. Which of the following is not an aspect of science and technology in the traditional society? A. Basket making B. Cloth making C. Iron smelting D. Oil processing
  5. One of the significance of man’s ability to adapt to his changing environment is that, it enables him to A. become more human B. determine his origin C. live in difficult situation D. verify the scientific claim of his origin
  6. Which of these is the positive impact of rural urban migration? It can lead to A. adequate manpower supply B. increase in crime rate C. overpopulation of the cites D. too much pressure on social amenities.



  1. Mention three ways that man can adapt to his environment.
  2. Define adaptability.


See also

Uniqueness of Nigerian Culture



Ways of Solving Common Social Problems in Nigeria

Common Social Problems in Nigeria

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