Social Issues and Problems

Social problems are matters, vices or challenges which directly or indirectly affect many or all members of a society and are considered to the problems because of their effects on the society. They constitute nuisance to the members of the public. Social problems include: bribery and corruption, poverty, examination malpractices, crime, kidnapping, cultism, child abuse etc.


Examination Malpractice

Is defined as any deliberate act of wrong doing/abuse in any form of the rules and regulation governing the conduct of examination (Internal or External Examination). It is a wrong or illegal behaviour exhibited by a person before, during and after the examination.


It is also the act of violating the rules and regulations of an examination body in order to succeed. It ranges from copying answers from a textbook or sheet of paper, buying of examination questions to getting another person to write an examination for you.


Causes of Examination Malpractices

The causes of examination malpractices are numerous;

  1. Undue emphasis on paper qualification for placement in higher institution and other occupational opportunities.
  2. Difficult and poorly moderated examination.
  3. Poor preparation for examination.
  4. Lack or shortage of qualified teachers.
  5. Test anxiety and examination phobia.
  6. Poor library facilities.
  7. Negative peer groups.
  8. Lack of confidence.
  9. Poor test administration (e.g. shortage of question papers, poor timing etc.)
  10. Lack of motivation by teachers and parents.



  1. Examination malpractice constitutes a serious problems and threat to societal norms and values such as honesty, industry, etc.
  2. Inability to communicate correctly in English Language.
  3. Expulsion due to low academic performance despite the ‘good result” that was used to secure the admission
  4. Inability to cope outside the school’s system since they only got their ways through dubious means



  1. Examination questions should be well screened and the examination committee must ensure that the questions are not so difficult so as to discourage failure rates.
  2. There should be enough security measures during examination period.
  3. Schools should be well equipped in order to make the environment conducive for students to learn and develop good study habits.
  4. More qualified teachers should be employed in the educational system of the school.
  5. The teacher should not create examination phobia on the students.
  6. Those to be chosen as examination officials, supervisors, invigilators etc. should be people of proven integrity and high moral standards



  1. Give two (2) effects of examination malpractices.
  2. State four (4) solutions to examination malpractices.



  1. Explain how moral values are being threatened through examination malpractice.
  2. List those things that are necessary in the school to facilitate a conducive environment.
  3. How could one with ‘good result’ still be expelled?
  4. List the agents of socialization.
  5. State three (3) importance of Social Studies.



  1. Which of the following is not an effect of examination malpractices? Laziness    B. Imprisonment    C. Poor image of the country    D. Promotion of hard work
  2. One may find it difficult to cope outside the school system because of involvement in examination malpractices. Yes or No?
  3. One of the following is a solution to examination malpractices. A. Some students cannot express themselves correctly B. Examination malpractices constitute a serious problemand threat to societal norms C. Teachers should not create examination phobia on the students D. Lack or shortage of qualified teachers.
  4. If the examination officials, supervisors etc. are of high moral standard, examination malpractices will be drastically reduces. Yes or No?
  5. Pick the one that is an effect of examination malpractices A. Expulsion B. Negative peer pressure C. Lack of confidence D. Security measures
  6. The effects for examination malpractice are the following except it A. is an easy way of passing examination B. kills reading culture C. makes students to be lazy D. makes one unable to depend his or her certificate E. lowers the quality of education
  7. The following are the contemporary social problems in Nigeria except ____ A. corruptionB. cultism C. examination malpractice D. HIV/AIDs E. unity



  1. Explain three effects of examination malpractices.
  2. Discuss how teachers could create examination phobia for students.


See also






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