Structure: Affixation: Suffixes

This refers to the addition of prefixes, suffixes and infixes to words leading to new words, meaning and word classes.


Examples (verbs)

  1. verbs+  –ment e.g.
  • Enslavement, achievement
  • Management, movement
  • Development
  1. verbs + –ion e.g.
  • Action
  • Conclusion
  • Decision
  1. verbs+  ation
  • organise = organisation
  • document = documentation
  • mobilize = mobilization
  1. verb+–age
  • marry = marriage
  • drain = drainage
  • carry = carriage
  1. verb+ –ist
  • type = typist
  • separate = separatist
  1. verb+ –er / -or
  • teach = teacher
  • debate = debater
  • direct = director
  • oppress = oppressor
  1. verb + –ee
  • amputate = amputee
  • employ = employee
  • invite = invitee
  1. verbs+–ve, ant, -ing
  • correct = corrective
  • cure = curative
  • attend = attendant
  • appeal = appellant
  • clone = cloning
  • house = housing
  1.  verbs +–ry, ery/ ary
  • brew =brewery
  • refine = refinery
  • cook = cookery
  • dispense = dispensary


Examples (Adjectives)

  1. Adjectives+ –ness
  • useful = usefulness
  • useless = uselessness
  • dry = dryness
  • conscious = consciousness
  • responsive = responsible
  • sad = sadness
  • ill = illness
  1. adjective +–ity, hood, -ance/ -ence
  • ethnic – ethnicity
  • public – publicity
  • false – falsehood
  • important = inportnace
  • different = difference
  1. Adjectives+ancy, / -ency
  • flippant – flippancy
  • efficient – efficiency



Write six nominalizations using two suffixes, the and compounding.



  1. Speech Work: Nasal Sounds /m/ /n/ and /h/

Content: Description, Symbols, Examples


Letters Words
M Man, mark, cram, comb
Mm Comment, programme
Letters Words
M Man, mark, cram, comb
Mm Comment, programme


This is a bilabial nasal. Its production involves the coming together of the lips and air goes out through the nasal cavity.



This is a voiced nasal sound that is produced when the soft palate is lowered to cover the oral cavity and allow air to pass through the nasal cavity. “n” is silent when it occurs after “m” in word- final positions e.g. hymn, damn.


Letter Words
N nab, ban, train
nn Beginning, planning



This is a voiced alveolar nasal that is produced like /n/  except that the back of the tongue forms a closure with the velum for the production of the /h/. This sound does not occur at the beginning of a word.


Letters Words
ng Bang, rang, tongue, singer
nk Thank, bank
nq Conquer, banquet
Anx Anxious, anxiety


More examples

/m/                                        /n/                   /h/

Balm                                  barn                  bang

Bomb                                 born                  long

Some                                  son                    song



Choose the word, which contains the given sound .

  1. /m/ (a) stamp (b) nap (c) bright
  2. /n/ (a) clan (b) clang (c) climb
  3. /h/ (a) sting (b) can (c) storm



  1. Comprehension/Register: Vocabulary Associated with Transportation pg 160 – 166 Countdown English

  • Ocean liner –a ship used to convey passengers and some cargo across the ocean
  • Berth – place for a ship to anchor
  • Rudder – a wooden or metal blade at the back of a ship that swings to and fro to control its direction
  • Cargo – goods carried by ship, a place or vehicle.
  • Speedometer – an instrument in a vehicle for telling its speed
  • Chauffeur – a person employed to drive someone’s car
  • Commuter – a person who makes regular journey of some distance.
  • Freightliner/liner train – a train that carries lare amount of goods in special containers
  • Derail – to cause to run off the rails/railway lines
  • Terminus – the last stop on a railway.
  • Air liner – a large passenger aircraft
  • Fuselage – the main body of an aircraft.
  • Cockpit – the part of a plane or racing car in which the pilot and co-pilot sit.
  • Tarmac/runway – is a way for landing or taking off.
  • Terminal – a bus station for passengers going to or arriving from an airport.
  • Hangar – a big building (shed) where planes are kept.



Write out five other words an transportation and use them in sentences.



Write out five words in which the nasal sounds are silent.




Choose the words which contain the phonetic sounds below

  1. /a:/ (a) Plait (b) brand         (c) badge         (d) balm
  2. /ŋ/ (a) reign           (b) bring          (c) strange       (d) plunge
  3. /З:/ (a) chart           (b) skirt           (c) shell           (d) gull
  4. / dʒ / (a) Garbage     (b) ledger        (c) measure      (d) knowledge
  5. /∂u/ (a) doll             (b) null             (c) role             (d) hall


See also

Structure: Idioms

Vocabulary Development: Hotel & Catering

Speech Sounds /I/ and /I:/ contrasted

Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with Films and TV

Structure: Adjectival Clause

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