Economics: Meaning, Scope, Branches & Study


Economics as a dynamic subject has very many definitions.  It is often said that there are so many definitions of economics as there are economists because they see the subject from different points of view.

Some definition given by some economists includes:

Adam Smith (18th Century British Economist Called the “Father of Economics”) in 1776 defined economics as “an inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations”.

John Stuart Mill in 1843 defined economics as “the practical science of production and distribution of wealth”

Alfred Marshal in 1890 defines it as “a study of mankind in the ordinary business of life, earning and enjoying a living”.

  1. J. Daven Port defines economics as “a science that treats phenomena from the stand point of price”.

Edvins Canon defines economics as “the study of things having to do with man’s material welfare”.

A.I. Pigou defines economics as “the study of how total production could be increased so that the standard of living of people might be improved’’.

However, the most acceptable and widely used definition was by Professor Lionel C. Robins in 1932, which defines economics as “the science which studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses”. The reasons for the popularity of this definition is twofold, namely, it is the only definition that mentions:

  • The basic economic problem of scarcity and choice.
  • The fact that economics is a social science.


The scope of economics is vast and multidimensional, encompassing various aspects of human behavior and economic activities. Its interrelationship with other social sciences contributes to a comprehensive understanding of social behavior. Here’s an expanded overview of the scope of economics:

1. Interdisciplinary Nature: Economics is inherently connected to other social sciences, including ethics, political science, sociology, geography, psychology, philosophy, and anthropology. By integrating knowledge from these disciplines, economists can gain deeper insights into the complexities of human behavior and the broader socioeconomic context in which economic activities occur.

2. Study of Human Behavior: At its core, economics is the study of human behavior concerning economic activities. Economists analyze how individuals, households, businesses, and governments make decisions related to the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. This includes understanding factors that influence decision-making, such as incentives, preferences, and constraints.

3. Microeconomics and Macroeconomics: Economics is often divided into microeconomics and macroeconomics. Microeconomics focuses on the behavior of individual agents, such as consumers and firms, and examines how their decisions shape market outcomes. On the other hand, macroeconomics deals with aggregate economic phenomena, such as national income, unemployment, inflation, and economic growth, and explores the broader implications of economic policies.

4. Resource Allocation: A central theme of economics is the efficient allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited human wants and needs. Economists analyze how societies make choices about resource allocation and the trade-offs involved in producing different goods and services.

5. Production, Exchange, Distribution, and Consumption: Economics covers the entire economic process, from the production of goods and services to their exchange in markets, distribution among various individuals or entities, and ultimately, their consumption by end-users. Understanding these elements is crucial for comprehending economic outcomes and trends.

6. Market Mechanisms and Pricing: Economics explores market mechanisms, which determine the prices of goods and services through the interaction of demand and supply. It also investigates the factors influencing market structures, competition, and pricing behavior, providing valuable insights into market efficiency and equilibrium.

7. Public Policy and Economic Systems: Economics plays a vital role in shaping public policies and economic systems. Policymakers use economic analysis to design and implement measures that address issues like unemployment, inflation, poverty, and environmental sustainability. Additionally, economics examines various economic systems, such as capitalism, socialism, and mixed economies, and their implications on resource allocation and social welfare.

8. Cost-Benefit Analysis: In decision-making, economists employ cost-benefit analysis to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different choices. By assessing the full cost, including opportunity costs, of pursuing particular goals, economists aid in making informed decisions that maximize societal well-being.

9. International Economics: Economics extends beyond national borders to encompass international trade, finance, and development. International economics examines the interactions between different countries in terms of trade policies, exchange rates, capital flows, and globalization’s impact on economic outcomes.

10. Economic Development and Growth: Economists study the factors influencing economic development and long-term economic growth. This includes investigating the role of investment, technological progress, human capital, and institutions in driving economic prosperity and reducing poverty.

11. Behavioral Economics: Within recent years, behavioral economics has emerged as an essential branch of economics, combining insights from psychology and economics. It examines how cognitive biases and heuristics influence economic decisions, offering a more nuanced understanding of human behavior.

12. Environmental and Resource Economics: Economics addresses environmental challenges and resource management, exploring sustainable approaches to economic development and the valuation of natural resources.

In conclusion, the scope of economics is broad and dynamic, encompassing an array of topics that shed light on human behavior, economic activities, and the functioning of societies. By integrating insights from various social sciences, economics provides a comprehensive understanding of the complex interactions that shape our economic world, informing policy decisions and contributing to societal well-being.


Economics, as a comprehensive discipline, is divided into two main broad areas: Microeconomics and Macroeconomics. These two branches explore distinct facets of the economic system, providing complementary insights into how individuals, households, businesses, and governments interact and influence overall economic outcomes.

1. Microeconomics:
Microeconomics delves into the economic actions and behaviors of individual agents within the economy. It focuses on the decisions made by consumers, producers (firms), and resource owners (households) and how their interactions shape market dynamics and resource allocation. Key aspects of microeconomics include:

Market Analysis: Microeconomics examines the forces of demand and supply that determine prices and quantities of goods and services in individual markets. It explores how changes in market conditions affect price levels, production, and consumption patterns.

– Consumer Behavior: Understanding consumer preferences, choices, and decision-making processes is essential in microeconomics. Economists analyze factors that influence individual demand, such as income, prices of goods, and consumer expectations.

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– Firm Behavior: Microeconomics studies the production decisions of firms, including cost analysis, pricing strategies, and profit maximization. It also investigates the market structures under which firms operate, such as perfect competition, monopoly, oligopoly, and monopolistic competition.

– Resource Allocation: This branch of economics assesses how limited resources are allocated among various competing uses. Economists analyze the efficient utilization of resources to satisfy the diverse wants and needs of individuals and society as a whole.

2. Macroeconomics:
Macroeconomics takes a broader perspective and examines the overall behavior and performance of an entire economy. It deals with aggregate economic variables and aims to understand the functioning of the economy as a whole. Key aspects of macroeconomics include:

– National Income and Output: Macroeconomics studies the total output and income of a nation, measuring economic growth and fluctuations in Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

– Inflation and Deflation: Economists analyze the general price level of goods and services in the economy, including the causes and consequences of inflation and deflation.

– Unemployment: Macroeconomics explores the factors affecting employment levels and investigates policies to reduce unemployment and achieve full employment.

– Monetary and Fiscal Policy: This branch of economics examines the role of government in influencing the economy through monetary policy (controlled by central banks) and fiscal policy (controlled by government spending and taxation).

– International Trade and Finance: Macroeconomics addresses the interaction of economies on a global scale, including international trade, exchange rates, and balance of payments.

– Economic Growth and Development: Economists analyze the determinants of long-term economic growth and development, studying factors like capital accumulation, technological progress, and institutional changes.

– Business Cycles: Macroeconomics investigates the recurring patterns of economic expansion and contraction known as business cycles, seeking to understand the causes and consequences of economic fluctuations.

The study of both microeconomics and macroeconomics is essential for comprehending the complexities of economic systems. While microeconomics focuses on the behavior of individual economic agents and specific markets, macroeconomics provides a broader perspective on the overall performance and behavior of the entire economy. Together, these branches of economics contribute to a holistic understanding of how economic decisions, policies, and external factors influence economic outcomes at both micro and macro levels.


Studying economics provides numerous benefits and insights into understanding the complexities of human behavior and the functioning of the economy. Here’s an expanded explanation of why we study economics:

1. Analyzing Economic Problems: Economics equips students with essential analytical and problem-solving skills. By studying economic principles and theories, individuals can better comprehend and address real-world economic challenges faced by individuals, businesses, and governments.

2. Understanding Complexity: The economy is a complex system with numerous interacting factors. Economics helps students grasp the intricacies of economic activities, market dynamics, and the interplay between different variables, allowing them to make more informed decisions in their personal and professional lives.

3. Analyzing Socioeconomic Behavior: Economics is crucial in analyzing patterns of socioeconomic behavior. By understanding how individuals and firms make decisions, economists can predict market trends, consumer preferences, and production choices.

4. Promoting Growth and Development: Governments and policymakers rely on economic analysis to formulate policies that foster economic growth and development. Economics provides insights into promoting job creation, investment, and sustainable economic progress, leading to improved living standards for the population.

5. Understanding Government Policies: Knowledge of economics is vital for comprehending the implications of government policies. Students can assess the economic impact of policies related to taxation, public spending, trade, and regulation, enabling them to engage in informed debates about policy choices.

6. Addressing Income Inequalities: Economics helps in understanding the effects of income disparities and opportunities within society. By studying income distribution, economists can suggest policy measures to tackle poverty, inequality, and social welfare issues.

7. Effective Resource Allocation: Economics focuses on the efficient allocation of scarce resources to different sectors of the economy. Students learn to balance competing demands and allocate resources optimally to maximize overall societal welfare.

8. Financial Decision Making: Knowledge of economics is valuable in making personal financial decisions. Understanding concepts like budgeting, saving, and investing allows individuals to manage their finances effectively and plan for their future.

9. Global Perspective: Economics provides a global perspective on economic interactions between countries. Understanding international trade, exchange rates, and globalization is crucial for businesses and governments operating in a globalized world.

10. Business Insights: Economics is applicable in the business world as well. Entrepreneurs and business managers use economic analysis to assess market demand, pricing strategies, and competition, enabling them to make strategic decisions for their businesses.

11. Informed Citizenship: A basic understanding of economics empowers citizens to be more informed and engaged in public discussions about economic policies, societal issues, and the impact of government decisions.

12. Preparation for Diverse Careers: Studying economics opens doors to diverse career opportunities. Graduates can pursue careers in finance, banking, consulting, public policy, research, academia, international organizations, and more.

In conclusion, the study of economics offers valuable knowledge and skills that have far-reaching applications in both personal and professional realms. From making informed decisions in daily life to contributing to policy formulation and economic development, economics plays a pivotal role in shaping our understanding of human behavior and the complexities of economic systems. It equips individuals with the tools to address economic challenges and work towards creating prosperous, sustainable, and equitable societies.

 Read also:

Labor | Characteristics, Types, Importance & Factors

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