# History of Computing

1. Abacus
2. Slide rule

## EARLY ELECTRO-MECHANICAL COUNTING DEVICES

1. John Napier bone
2. Blaize Pascal machine
3. Gottfried Leitbnitz machine
4. Joseph Jacquard Loom
5. Charles Babbage’s analytical machine

## EARLY ELECTRONIC COUNTING DEVICES:

1. Herman Hollerith punch card
2. John Von Neumann machine

Man has put in every effort to have better methods of calculations. As a result of man’s search for fast and accurate calculating devices, the computer was developed. Essentially, there are three kinds of calculating devices: manual, mechanical and automatic.

## ABACUS

The abacus, a remarkable invention, is widely regarded as one of the earliest calculating devices. With its origins attributed to ancient China, this ingenious tool has left an indelible mark on the history of mathematics and continues to hold significance in various cultures even today. Known for its simplicity of operation and effectiveness in basic calculations, the abacus remains in use in certain regions around the world.

The structure of an abacus typically consists of a rectangular frame, divided into two distinct sections by a horizontal bar. Vertical threads extend from this bar, with a series of beads adorning each thread. These beads, often differing in size or color, hold the key to manipulating numerical values. The abacus provides a tangible representation of numbers, enabling users to perform simple addition and subtraction operations with ease.

Operating an abacus involves sliding the beads along the threads, thus manipulating their positions to represent numerical values. By employing this tactile approach, individuals can perform calculations swiftly and accurately. The horizontal bar acts as a reference point, helping users keep track of the different place values as they maneuver the beads.

### Get A Free USA Scholarship, Visa & Accommodation

In its early days, the abacus revolutionized computation, allowing users to perform calculations swiftly and with greater efficiency than purely mental methods. Its simplicity made it accessible to a wide range of individuals, from merchants conducting business transactions to scholars delving into more complex mathematical concepts. Through the abacus, countless individuals honed their numeracy skills and paved the way for further advancements in the realm of mathematics.

Although modern technology has brought about sophisticated electronic calculators and computers, the abacus still maintains its relevance in certain educational settings and cultural traditions. In many countries, particularly in East Asia, the abacus is taught to young learners as a foundational tool for understanding mathematical principles. Its tangible nature offers a valuable hands-on experience that aids in conceptualizing numerical concepts and fostering mental arithmetic skills.

Moreover, the abacus continues to be celebrated as a symbol of cultural heritage and historical significance. Various communities and organizations organize competitions and events centered around abacus calculations, showcasing the enduring relevance of this ancient device. The abacus serves as a reminder of the remarkable ingenuity of our ancestors and their relentless pursuit of knowledge and innovation.

The abacus stands as a testament to human ingenuity and the quest for efficient calculation methods. Developed in ancient China, this enduring tool remains an integral part of mathematical education in certain cultures. Its simple yet effective design, with beads sliding along threads, enables users to perform basic arithmetic operations with ease. As we embrace technological advancements, the abacus continues to hold its place as a cherished artifact, symbolizing our historical roots and the timeless pursuit of mathematical understanding.

## NAPIER’S BONE

In the quest for more efficient calculating tools, the Scottish mathematician John Napier made a significant contribution with his invention known as Napier’s Bones. Born out of the need to simplify complex multiplication calculations, Napier’s Bones revolutionized mathematical computation during the 17th century.

Napier’s Bones consisted of a set of eleven rods, each made from bone or ivory, hence the name “bones.” These rods were carefully crafted and marked with numerical values in a unique manner. Each rod had four sides, with each side containing a set of numbers arranged in a specific pattern.

The genius of Napier’s invention lay in the arrangement of the numbers on the rods. By aligning the rods side by side and manipulating them, users could easily obtain products and quotients of large numbers. Each rod represented a specific digit in the multiplication process, enabling calculations to be performed swiftly and accurately.

To use Napier’s Bones, one would align the rods in a specific order, according to the digits of the numbers being multiplied. The corresponding values on the aligned rods would then be added vertically to produce the final result. This method eliminated the need for complex multiplication steps, making it a valuable tool for mathematicians, scientists, engineers, and merchants who relied on accurate calculations.

Napier’s invention was particularly advantageous for performing repetitive calculations, as the rods could be quickly rearranged for different numbers without the need for lengthy calculations or memorization. This feature made Napier’s Bones a time-saving device and contributed to its popularity among users seeking efficient and reliable computation methods.

The widespread use of Napier’s Bones played a pivotal role in advancing mathematical understanding and practical applications during the Renaissance period. Its influence extended beyond Europe, reaching other parts of the world where it was embraced as an invaluable tool for trade, astronomy, navigation, and various scientific disciplines.

Although Napier’s Bones eventually fell out of common use with the advent of more advanced calculating devices, such as mechanical calculators and eventually digital computers, their significance in the history of mathematics remains undiminished. Napier’s innovative approach to simplifying complex multiplication paved the way for subsequent developments in computation, serving as a foundation for future inventions and methods.

Today, Napier’s Bones are regarded as artifacts of mathematical ingenuity, displayed in museums and collections as a testament to the human desire for efficient calculation tools. They serve as a reminder of the enduring impact of early mathematical pioneers like John Napier, who strove to enhance our understanding of numbers and make complex calculations more accessible to all.

## PASCALINE

In 1642, the visionary French mathematician Blaise Pascal introduced the world to an extraordinary invention known as the Pascaline, marking a significant milestone in the evolution of mechanical calculating machines. With its ingenious design and functionality, the Pascaline laid the foundation for subsequent advancements in computation and played a pivotal role in shaping the development of calculating devices.

At the heart of the Pascaline was a series of numbered wheels, which formed the basis of its input mechanism. Users would dial in the desired numbers by rotating these wheels, aligning the corresponding digits to indicate the values they wanted to calculate. The user’s input was then processed through an intricate sequence of mechanisms within the device.

The movement initiated by the input wheels was skillfully transferred through a system of gears and mechanisms, ultimately translating into a visual representation of the calculated result. This result was displayed on a dial, allowing users to read and interpret the outcome of their calculations with ease.

While addition and subtraction were performed in a similar manner to manual calculations, the true brilliance of the Pascaline lay in its ability to execute multiplication and division operations mechanically. Multiplication was achieved through a process of repeated addition, with the device performing the necessary number of additions based on the multiplier specified by the user.

Division, on the other hand, was carried out through repeated subtraction. By subtracting the divisor from the dividend repeatedly, Pascaline determined the quotient, effectively simulating the division process in a mechanical and automated manner.

Pascaline’s mechanical prowess revolutionized the world of calculation, enabling individuals to perform complex mathematical operations with greater speed and accuracy than ever before. It alleviated the burden of manual calculations, reducing the potential for human error and enhancing overall efficiency in various domains that relied on precise computation.

Blaise Pascal’s invention of the Pascaline marked a turning point in the history of mechanical calculation devices. It provided a blueprint for future inventors and paved the way for the development of more sophisticated and advanced calculating machines in the centuries to come.

While the Pascaline eventually faded into obscurity as more advanced technologies emerged, its impact on the field of computation is undeniable. It showcased the transformative power of mechanical devices in augmenting human capabilities and laid the groundwork for the evolution of computing machinery.

Today, the Pascaline stands as a testament to Blaise Pascal’s ingenuity and his contribution to the field of mathematics and technology. Exhibited in museums and collections worldwide, the Pascaline serves as a tangible reminder of the remarkable progress made in calculating devices, fueling inspiration and appreciation for the continuous advancements that shape our modern world.

## LEIBNITZ CALCULATING MACHINE

In 1694, the renowned German polymath Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz introduced a groundbreaking invention that would revolutionize the world of computation—the mechanical calculator. Leibniz’s calculating machine, often referred to as the Leibniz Wheel or the Leibniz Stepped Reckoner, marked a significant milestone in the development of computing devices.

At its core, the Leibniz calculator employed a special stepped gear mechanism, an innovative design that allowed for the addition and subsequent multiplication of numbers. This mechanism formed the basis of Leibniz’s method for introducing digits into the calculation process, enabling the machine to perform mathematical operations with remarkable precision and efficiency.

The Leibniz calculator functioned by utilizing a series of rotating wheels or discs, each marked with digits from 0 to 9. These wheels were arranged in a stepped configuration, with each wheel representing a different place value in the numerical system. By setting the wheels to specific positions, users could input the desired numbers into the machine.

To perform addition, the Leibniz calculator employed a simple mechanism. By rotating the wheels to the appropriate positions, the corresponding digits are aligned and the machine would generate the sum of the numbers entered. This process allowed for the rapid and accurate calculation of addition problems, greatly simplifying the task for mathematicians, scientists, and other professionals who relied on precise computations.

However, it was Leibniz’s ingenious adaptation of the stepped gear mechanism that truly distinguished his calculator. By incorporating an innovative modification, Leibniz enabled the machine to perform multiplication—a feat that expanded the calculator’s capabilities and enhanced its versatility.

The stepped gear mechanism devised by Leibniz facilitated multiplication by introducing additional digits into the calculation process. It allowed for the multiplication of each digit in one number by every digit in the other, with the results properly positioned according to their respective place values. This breakthrough innovation enabled the machine to automate complex multiplication operations, revolutionizing the speed and accuracy of mathematical calculations.

Leibniz’s stepped gear mechanism, with its remarkable ability to introduce digits into calculations, had a lasting impact on the field of computation. Its influence transcended the era of mechanical calculators, with the concept finding its way into subsequent generations of calculating devices.

Even in contemporary times, variants of Leibniz’s stepped gear mechanism can still be found in certain mechanical calculators, demonstrating the enduring relevance and effectiveness of his invention. The concept of introducing digits in a systematic manner remains a cornerstone of mechanical calculation, showcasing Leibniz’s profound insight and contribution to the evolution of computing devices.

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz’s mechanical calculator stands as a testament to his genius and the relentless pursuit of more efficient calculation methods. It laid the foundation for the development of subsequent generations of calculating devices, setting the stage for the remarkable advancements that continue to shape the world of computing.

## JACQUARD’S LOOM

Joseph-Marie Jacquard’s revolutionary invention, the Jacquard loom, holds a significant place in the history of technology and automation. Introduced in the early 19th century, this remarkable machine marked a turning point in the weaving industry and laid the groundwork for the development of programmable devices.

Prior to Jacquard’s innovation, the process of weaving intricate patterns was a labor-intensive and time-consuming task, requiring skilled artisans to manually control the raising and lowering of threads. Jacquard sought to streamline and automate this process by introducing a mechanism that could be programmed to execute complex weaving patterns with precision.

At the heart of Jacquard’s loom were punched cards—an ingenious method of storing and transmitting instructions to the machine. Each card featured a series of lines with holes punched into specific positions. These holes represented the desired pattern for the woven fabric. By manipulating the position and arrangement of holes on the cards, weavers could create intricate and detailed designs.

When the loom was in operation, the punched cards were threaded through a series of hooks or needles. As the fabric was being woven, these hooks interacted with the card, with each hole determining whether a thread should be raised or remain stationary. By selectively raising or lowering the threads based on the pattern encoded in the punched card, the loom produced intricate designs and complex woven textiles.

Jacquard’s innovative use of punched cards revolutionized the weaving industry. It allowed for the production of intricate patterns and designs that were previously unattainable through manual techniques alone. The programmability of the loom meant that a single machine could execute various patterns, offering unprecedented versatility and efficiency in textile production.

The impact of Jacquard’s loom extended far beyond the weaving industry. His concept of using punched cards as a means of controlling machine operations laid the foundation for future developments in automation and computing. The notion of storing instructions on cards and using them to drive mechanical processes set the stage for the development of programmable devices that would shape the course of technological advancement.

Indeed, the punched card system pioneered by Jacquard served as a precursor to the punch card technology that would later play a pivotal role in early computing. Pioneers such as Charles Babbage and Ada Lovelace drew inspiration from Jacquard’s work, incorporating punched cards into their early mechanical computing devices, such as Babbage’s Analytical Engine.

The Jacquard loom remains an enduring symbol of innovation and automation. Its impact on the weaving industry, as well as its influence on the trajectory of computing, cannot be overstated. Jacquard’s ingenious use of punched cards and his pioneering efforts in programming set the stage for a future where machines would be controlled by encoded instructions, ultimately shaping the landscape of modern technology.

## PUNCHED CARD

The period between the 1920s and 1930s witnessed significant advancements in the development of the punched card system, a key technology that revolutionized data processing and storage. During this time, the punched card system underwent steady refinement and standardization, enabling it to become a widely adopted method for data representation and manipulation.

At the core of this system was the punched card itself, which served as a physical medium for storing and encoding information. The standard punched card was typically rectangular in shape and divided into a grid pattern consisting of 80 columns and 12 rows. This standardized format allowed for consistent handling and processing of data across different systems and applications.

Each column on the punched card was reserved for representing a specific character or data element. The column’s position within the card corresponded to a particular value or attribute, providing a structured framework for organizing and interpreting information. With 80 columns available, a maximum of 80 characters or data points could be represented on a single card.

To encode a character or data value onto a punched card, one or more holes were punched in the appropriate column. The presence or absence of holes in specific column positions represented different characters or data symbols. For example, punching a single hole in a column might indicate the letter “A,” while two or three holes in a different column could represent numerals or other specific characters.

The process of punching holes into the cards was typically carried out using a punch machine. The punch machine featured a keyboard that resembled that of a typewriter, with keys corresponding to the different columns on the punched card. Operators would input the desired character or data value by pressing the corresponding key, and the machine would punch the appropriate holes onto a blank card.

The punched card system brought about significant advancements in data processing and storage during its heyday. It enabled the efficient handling of large volumes of information, allowing for rapid data entry, storage, and retrieval. Punched cards were widely used in various industries and applications, including census data analysis, scientific research, payroll processing, and inventory management.

While the punched card system eventually gave way to more advanced technologies such as magnetic tape and electronic storage, its impact on the field of computing was profound. The concepts and principles underlying the punched card system—such as structured data representation and the use of encoding schemes—formed the basis for subsequent developments in data storage and computer programming.

The punched card era remains an important chapter in the history of computing, serving as a testament to the ingenuity and innovation of early pioneers in the field. The standardized format, efficient data representation, and mechanical punch machines of the time laid the groundwork for the future evolution of information processing, propelling us toward the digital age we now inhabit.

Data and Information

ICT Application in Everyday Life

Digitalization of Data II

Digitalization of Data

Classification of Computers By Size