Parts of Speech | Noun, Pronoun, Verb Adjective & Spelling

Review of Word Class- Parts of Speech

Noun– A noun is a naming word. It is a name of a person, animal, place, thing or and idea. Nouns also cover names like those of institutions, months and days, and abstract ideas. Below are examples of nouns:

Names of people: John, Peterson, Samuel, William

Names of places: Beijing, New York, Washinton, London, Sweden, Canada

Names of things: table, chair, house, lap top, radio etc

Names of Institutions: family, tribe, Christianity, Islam, university etc

Names of months and days: January, February, December, Sunday, Thursday, Friday.

Names of Abstract ideas: beauty, knowledge, emotion, hope, courage, wisdom, empathy etc.


  1. Most nouns form their plurals with ending – ‘s’ or –‘es’: girl – girls, box – boxes, church – churches
  2. Nouns are often used with articles, demonstratives and adjectives, e.g a cup, an hour , a church, that house, black girl, some people.
  • Words that end with the following morphemes are usually often nouns-
  • age– e,g damage, drainage, homage, image, stoppage.
  • al– g arrival, cabbinal, dismissal, mammal, refusal.
  • tion– e.g action,option, association, imagination, admonition, composition.
  • er- e,g adviser, marker, player, teacher, worker
  • ery– machinery, slavery, stationery,
  • titude– e.g servitude, solitude
  • hood– boyhood, girlhood, childhood, womanhood
  • like– childlike,
  • ist– bicyclist, evangelist, motorist, socialist
  • ity- ability brevity equity, impunity
  • ment– arrangement, comment, establishment, government
  • ness– firmess, fairness, laziness,
  • cy– proficiency, ascendancy, profligacy, legacy, papacy
  • ocracy– democracy, aristocracy, autocracy
  • ism– Zionism, Feudalism, Nazism, Communism
  • ship– scholarship, fellowship, fellowship, membership
  • ster– gangster, trickster, youngster

Types of Nouns

Proper Nouns: These name a SPECIFIC person, place or thing. Note that the first letter of every proper noun must be written in capital letter regardless of its position in a sentence. E.g  We will travel to New York on Monday in the month of August. Proper nouns in the sentence above are: New York, Monday and August.

Examples of proper nouns are:

Names of persons – Joseph, Paul, Saul,

Names of places/countries – Ottawa in Canada, Oslo-Norway, Angeles, California, Ibadan,

Days of the week and months of the years – January, December, Monday, Friday.

Note: The first letter of the proper noun must be written in capital letter regardless of its position in a sentence.

Common Noun: This is the opposite of concrete noun. It is used to name things/person/places which are of general kinds. E.g boy, man, lady, church, mosque, boxes,  table, knives.

Concrete Noun: This type of noun can be seen and touched. It is the opposite of abstract noun. Examples of concrete nouns are: books, tables, bag etc.

Abstract Nouns: These only exist in names. They can neither be seen nor touched. These can only be felt. E.g hatred, hunger, pains, intelligence, etc

Count nouns: These are nouns that can be counted. They usually have singular and plural forms, E.g one man- five men, one orange-several oranges,  a book-five books.

Non count or mass nouns: These cannot be counted, and they therefore have only singular form. Sand , soap, rice, homework,  water. Although, they may be counted when converted to units of measurement. E,g, three bags of rice, a bar of soap, some loaves of bread,

OTHER types of uncountable nouns are: equipment, jewelry, stationery, information, baggage, luggage, machinery, furniture, baggage, damage, -NOTE- These uncountable nouns must not attract –s- to form their plurals.

E.g All the students were instructed to take their baggage. Not baggages

We have got information/some pieces of information about them. Not ‘an information’ or ‘informations’.

The rain wrecked serious damage to the building. Not ‘damages’. Note –The word damages means a fine imposed on someone. E,g He was ordered by the court of law to pay damages for the damage to his car.

Collective nouns: These name a group of people or things. E.g

A troupe of dancers

A troop of soldiers

A band of thieves

15 Places to WIN $10,000
15 Places to WIN $10,000 Cash

A bevy of ladies

A class of students.

Possessive noun/ genitive: These indicate possession. E.g Dr Angela’s car. Mrs. Edison’s dress. Mr Johnson’s house, Emmanuel’s radio, The Chief Justice’s pen etc.

NUMBER: There are two numbers in English- singular and plural. This singular relates to one, while the plural relates to more than one. Countable nouns have both singular and plural forms, uncountable nouns have only the singular form.


School schools
Mat mats
House houses
Box boxes
Bonus bonuses



man men
ox oxen
goose geese
crisis crises
forum fora
formula formulae
symposium symposia
foot feet
parenthesis parenthesis
medium media
index indices/indexes
larva larvae
louse lice
mouse mice
curriculum curricula
axis axes
oasis oases



Head of state heads of states
head of department heads of departments
commander in chief commanders in chief
woman doctor women doctors
secretary general secretaries general
woman occupant women occupants
passer-by passers-by
mother-in-law mothers-in-law
grown-up grown-ups
major general major generals
church-goer church-goers
step-son step-sons



 Gross gross
Deer deer
Sheep sheep
Fish fish or fishes
Series series
Trout trout
Salmon salmon
Person persons or people












aircraft(pl)   – aircraft

cattle(pl) – cattle



remains (a body of a dead person)









works – (Public works such as road construction)



Pronouns- Pronouns are words that are used to replace nouns in a sentence. They are mostly used in order to avoid unnecessary repetition of nouns in a sentence.  Both nouns and pronouns are used interchangeably in a sentence, therefore they both perform the same function. Examples are he, they, we etc.


Personal pronouns: Examples I, we, they , us etc.

Possessive pronouns: yours, his, hers, theirs, its, yours etc.

Demonstrative pronouns: this that these those.

Interrogative pronouns: who which, whom, whose, etc.

Reflexive pronouns: myself, themselves, yourselves/yourself, ourselves, oneself etc.

Reciprocal pronouns: each other and one another.

Relative pronoun: which, whom, whose, who, that etc.

Indefinite pronouns: someone, somebody, anything, anyone, everything, everyone, nobody, nothing etc.


These are words that describe or qualify nouns. Adjectives are said to perform attributive functions when they are placed before noun. E.g, A red shirt, a gentle lady.

However, an adjective performs a predicative function if it is placed after a link verb. E.g the shirt is red,   the lady is gentle.

Kind of Adjectives

Adjectives of Color: red, green, black – a red shirt, a green basket

Adjectives of Size – e.g big , small, long

Adjectives of Age – old young

Adjectives of Shape – rectangular, circular, round, spherical

Adjectives of Origin – Nigerian, Ghanaian, Canadian

Adjectives of Number– one , two, three, twenty

Demonstrative Adjectives – this, these, that, those

Possessive Adjectives – your, my, her, their

Distributive Adjectives – each, some, every , any


– cal     –   grammatical, classical,

– ic     –    authentic historic, workaholic

– eous      advantageous

– ious–    melodious, odious, copious, superstitious

– uous   – promiscuous, continuous, conspicuous

ive    – meditative, sedative, curative

– able   – edible, curable, sensible, marketable

– al   –   illegal, regal, digital, rural, brutal

– ial  –   social, crucial, essential, commercial


A verb expresses action and a state of being. Examples of verbs are sing, dance, jump, is, are, am, etc.


Lexical Verb: This type of verb expresses action. It can stand on its own without depending on other type of verb. Another name for lexical verb is ‘main verb’. Examples are: speak, pray, write etc.

Auxiliary verbs: There are two types of auxiliary verbs. Those that are not capable of independent existence, and those that can stand on their own while they express a state. Those that can stand on their own and function like main verbs are called PRIMARY AUXILIARY VERBS- e.g. be, am, is, are, was, were, being, been. While those that can stand on their own are called MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS-E.g can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would. Others are ought to, dare, need.

Finite and Non-finite Verbs

The finite verb agrees with the subject in terms of person, tense, and number. E.g. She works hard – Present tense.   She worked hard- Past tense.

John speaks good English Language- Singular subject + singular verb

John and Peter speak good English Language- Plural subject + plural verb.

Non-Finite Verbs– They do not agree with the subject in terms of person, number and tense. They belong to the following group. Infinitive- ‘to work’, ‘to eat’, ‘to dance’. They usually have –ing- ending. E.g dancing, singing, praying, cooking, etc.

Transitive Verb: This type of verb receives object. E.g He killed a snake.[ a snake is the dirtect object of the verb killed].

Intransitive Verb: This type of verb does not require an object. E.g She died, They cooked, We prayed.

Spelling: Doubling of Consonants. Rules of Spelling

Words of one syllable with one vowel and a consonant at the end double the consonant before adding suffixes beginning with a vowel.


big –bigger

bat –batting

drop –dropped

drum –drummer

When the vowel is doubled (o,a) ,do not double the consonant.


boat – boating

boil – boiled

cheap –cheapest

sweet – sweeter

Exception: wool – woolen

Words of more than one syllable (ad/mit) –i-vowel, t-consonant

Double the final consonant when the accent is on the last syllable:


admit –admittance

begin –beginning

forget –forgetting

occur –occurrence

Words of more than one syllable not accented on the last syllable.

Do not double the consonant if you add an ending that begins with a vowel


enter – entering

happen –happened

inhabit – inhabitant

refer – reference

Note – A final “p” is doubled


Handicap –Handicapped

Kidnap –kidnapped

Worship – Worshipped

Exception : Develop – Developed

In words ending with “c” add “k” before the suffix


frolic  – frolicked

mimic – mimicked

panic – panicky


Read also

Informal Letter, Definite, Indefinite Articles & Consonants

Summary, Prefixes, Suffixes, Adverbial & Prepositional

Reading Skills, Vocabulary Development & Emphatic Stress

Reading, Adjective, Adjectival Phrase & Argumentative Essay

Vocabulary, Noun Clause, Consonant Sounds & Narrative- Essay

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