Production | Meaning, Types, Classification, Factors & Importance


Production has diverse meanings, but the usage depends on the context in which it is used. Production in economics may be defined as the various economic activities aimed at the creation of goods and services and the distribution of these goods to the final consumers for the satisfaction of human wants. That is, production is the making available of goods and services to those who are willing and able to pay for them for the satisfaction of their wants.

Production may equally be defined as the creation of utility while utility is the ability of a commodity or service to satisfy human wants. All goods and services produced must possess utility, which means that they must be capable of satisfying certain human wants.

Economics is not concerned with whether something is good or bad. Its interest is in whether that thing is desired by someone who is prepared to pay for it. Production in economics is never complete until the goods and services produced get to the final consumers.


Types of goods refer to different categories or classifications that can be used to describe and categorize various products or commodities in the market. These classifications are based on certain characteristics or attributes of the goods. Here are some commonly recognized types of goods:

1. Consumer goods: These are products intended for personal use and consumption by individuals. Consumer goods can be further divided into subcategories such as durable goods (e.g., appliances, cars) and non-durable goods (e.g., food, toiletries).

2. Capital goods: Also known as producer goods or investment goods, capital goods are used in the production process to manufacture other goods or provide services. Examples include machinery, equipment, and factories. Capital goods are typically purchased by businesses or organizations rather than individual consumers.

3. Intermediate goods: These goods are used as inputs or raw materials in the production of other goods or services. They are not intended for final consumption but are necessary for the production process. Examples of intermediate goods include steel used in car manufacturing or flour used in bread production.

4. Complementary goods: Complementary goods are products that are used together or in conjunction with each other. The demand for one product is influenced by the demand for the other. For instance, smartphones and smartphone cases are complementary goods since the demand for cases depends on the demand for smartphones.

5. Substitute goods: Substitute goods are products that serve similar purposes and can be used as alternatives to each other. When the price of one substitute good increases, consumers may choose to purchase the other substitute good instead. Examples include different brands of soda or competing smartphone models.

6. Luxury goods: Luxury goods are high-quality, expensive products that are associated with high status or exclusivity. These goods often have unique features or designs and are targeted at consumers with higher purchasing power. Examples include luxury cars, designer clothing, and high-end jewelry.

7. Inferior goods: Inferior goods are goods for which demand decreases when consumer income rises. These goods are typically of lower quality or less desirable compared to other alternatives. As consumers’ income increases, they tend to substitute inferior goods with better alternatives. Examples may include low-quality generic products or cheap fast food.

8. Public goods: Public goods are non-excludable and non-rivalrous goods that are provided by the government or public sector for the benefit of society as a whole. They are typically financed through taxes and include goods like public parks, national defense, or street lighting.

9. Private goods: Private goods are the opposite of public goods. They are excludable and rivalrous, meaning they can be owned exclusively by individuals or organizations, and their consumption by one person reduces their availability for others. Examples include most consumer goods, such as clothing, electronics, or household items.

10. Free goods: Free goods are goods that are abundantly available in nature and do not have any economic cost associated with them. Examples include air, sunlight, and water from natural sources.

11. Digital goods: Digital goods are intangible products that can be delivered electronically. They include digital media such as e-books, music, movies, software, and online services like streaming platforms or cloud storage.

12. Non-durable goods: Non-durable goods, also known as perishable goods, are products that have a short lifespan or are consumed quickly. Examples include food items, beverages, and toiletries.

13. Durable goods: Durable goods are products that are designed to last for an extended period and are not consumed immediately. They have a longer lifespan and include items like furniture, appliances, and vehicles.

14. Fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG): FMCG refers to products that are sold quickly, usually at a relatively low cost. These goods have a high turnover rate and include items like packaged food, toiletries, cleaning products, and over-the-counter medicines.

15. Specialty goods: Specialty goods are products that have unique characteristics or qualities and are specifically targeted at a niche market or a particular group of consumers. These goods often command a higher price due to their exclusivity or specialized features. Examples include luxury watches, high-end sports equipment, and artisanal products.

16. Industrial goods: Industrial goods are products that are used by businesses in their production processes or operations. They are not intended for final consumption by individuals. Industrial goods can include raw materials, machinery, equipment, or components used in manufacturing or construction.

17. Publicly traded goods: Publicly traded goods refer to stocks or shares of companies that are listed on stock exchanges and can be bought and sold by the public. These goods represent ownership in a company and are traded in financial markets.

18. Natural resources: Natural resources are raw materials or substances that occur in nature and are used in various economic activities. Examples include minerals, forests, water resources, and petroleum.

These are just a few more types of goods that provide further categorization based on different characteristics, purposes, or market dynamics. The classification of goods can vary depending on the context, industry, or specific field of study.

These categories provide a framework for understanding and classifying different types of goods based on their characteristics, purpose, and relationship with consumers and the market. It’s important to note that some goods can fall into multiple categories depending on the context or perspective of analysis.


Production is basically divided into two – Direct and Indirect Production.

  1. Direct Production: This is the creation of goods and services to satisfy household requirements It is a small-scale production to meet family needs.
  2. Indirect Production: It is a production by specialization for exchange. That is the producer is not attempting to satisfy his own wants directly except to a very limited extent.

In addition to the division of production into direct and indirect production, there are several other types or classifications of production based on different criteria. Here are a few commonly recognized types of production:

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1. Subsistence production: Subsistence production refers to the production of goods and services primarily for the self-sufficiency of individuals or communities. It is focused on meeting basic needs such as food, clothing, and shelter. Subsistence production is often associated with traditional or rural economies.

2. Commercial production: Commercial production is the production of goods and services for sale in the market with the aim of generating profits. It involves producing goods or providing services on a larger scale and targeting a broader customer base. Commercial production is characteristic of modern industrialized economies.

3. Mass production: Mass production is a method of production that involves the large-scale production of standardized goods. It is characterized by the use of assembly lines and specialized machinery to produce goods efficiently and at a high volume. Mass production allows for economies of scale and is commonly used in industries such as automotive manufacturing or electronics.

4. Custom production: Custom production, also known as made-to-order or bespoke production, involves producing goods according to specific customer requirements or preferences. Each product is tailored to the individual customer’s specifications, allowing for a high degree of customization. Custom production is often found in industries such as luxury goods, furniture, or specialized manufacturing.

5. Batch production: Batch production is a production method where goods are produced in groups or batches. It involves producing a specific quantity of a product before switching to another product or batch. Batch production allows for flexibility in manufacturing and is often used when producing goods with varying specifications or customization.

6. Just-in-time production: Just-in-time (JIT) production is a production strategy that aims to minimize inventory levels by producing goods only as they are needed in the production process. It involves a tightly coordinated supply chain to ensure that materials and components arrive precisely when they are required. JIT production helps reduce inventory costs and increase efficiency.

7. Lean production: Lean production, also known as lean manufacturing, is an approach to production that focuses on eliminating waste and maximizing value for customers. It involves continuously improving processes, reducing defects, and optimizing resource utilization. Lean production aims to achieve high efficiency and quality while minimizing costs.

8. Green production: Green production, also referred to as sustainable production or eco-friendly production, emphasizes minimizing environmental impact throughout the production process. It involves using renewable resources, reducing energy consumption, minimizing waste generation, and adopting environmentally friendly practices. Green production aligns with principles of environmental sustainability.

9. Digital production: Digital production refers to the production of goods or services using digital technologies and processes. It involves the use of computerized systems, automation, and digital tools to design, produce, and distribute products. Digital production is prevalent in industries such as software development, digital media, and online services.

These are some of the common types of production that reflect different approaches, scales, and goals in the production of goods and services. The choice of production type depends on factors such as the nature of the product, market demand, available resources, and technological advancements.


Certainly! The classification of production can be further expanded to include three main categories: primary production, secondary production, and tertiary production. Here’s an explanation of each category:

1. Primary Production:
Primary production, also known as extractive production, involves the extraction or cultivation of raw materials directly from natural resources. It is the initial stage of production and includes activities such as farming, fishing, mining, forestry, and oil drilling. Primary production is focused on obtaining basic resources from the environment and is typically the starting point for further processing or manufacturing in the production chain.

Examples of primary production:
– Agricultural activities: Growing crops, raising livestock, and harvesting agricultural products.
– Mining and extraction: Extracting minerals, metals, oil, gas, and other natural resources from the earth.
– Forestry: Logging and harvesting timber from forests.
– Fishing: Catching fish and other aquatic resources.

2. Secondary Production:
Secondary production involves the transformation and processing of raw materials obtained through primary production into finished goods. It encompasses manufacturing and construction activities where raw materials are converted into more complex and valuable products. Secondary production often involves assembly lines, machinery, and specialized manufacturing processes.

Examples of secondary production:
– Manufacturing: Converting raw materials into finished products through processes like cutting, shaping, molding, and assembling. Examples include the production of automobiles, electronics, textiles, and machinery.
– Construction: Using raw materials to build structures such as buildings, bridges, roads, and infrastructure.

3. Tertiary Production:
Tertiary production also referred to as the service sector or the service industry, involves the provision of services rather than the physical production of goods. This category encompasses a wide range of activities that provide intangible value to consumers or businesses. Tertiary production includes services such as transportation, retail, healthcare, finance, education, tourism, entertainment, and consulting.

Examples of tertiary production:
Transportation: Providing services related to the movement of goods or people, such as logistics, shipping, airlines, and public transportation.
– Retail: Selling goods to consumers through various channels, including physical stores, online platforms, and e-commerce.
– Healthcare: Providing medical services, including hospitals, clinics, doctors, nurses, and healthcare facilities.
– Financial services: Offering banking, insurance, investment, and financial advice.
– Education: Providing educational services, including schools, universities, training programs, and online learning platforms.
– Tourism and hospitality: Offering services related to travel, accommodations, restaurants, and entertainment for tourists and travelers.
– Consulting: Providing professional advice and expertise in various fields, such as management consulting, legal consulting, or IT consulting.

It’s important to note that these categories are not mutually exclusive, and many production processes involve elements from multiple categories. The classification helps in understanding the different stages and types of activities involved in the production of goods and services, and it serves as a framework for analyzing and studying various industries and sectors of the economy.


Factors of production are the resources or inputs required in the production process to create goods and services. These factors are essential for the creation of economic output and are combined and organized by entrepreneurs to generate value. The traditional classification of factors of production includes four main categories:

1. Land: Land represents all natural resources used in production. It includes not only the surface area of the earth but also all its natural elements such as minerals, forests, water bodies, and energy resources. The land is a fixed and limited factor of production, and its availability and quality can vary. It is important to note that land refers to physical space and resources and does not include improvements made by human activity.

2. Labor: Labor refers to the human effort, both physical and mental, involved in the production process. It encompasses the skills, knowledge, abilities, and time contributed by workers. Labor can be both manual and intellectual, and it is considered a variable factor of production as the quantity and quality of labor can be adjusted. Labor includes workers at all levels, from unskilled workers to highly skilled professionals and entrepreneurs.

3. Capital: Capital represents the man-made resources used in production, including physical assets such as machinery, equipment, buildings, infrastructure, tools, and technology. Capital is typically produced by saving a portion of income and investing it in the production process. It plays a crucial role in enhancing productivity and efficiency. Capital can be categorized into two types: physical capital (tangible assets) and financial capital (money, stocks, bonds, etc.).

4. Entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurship refers to the ability and initiative of individuals to combine the other factors of production (land, labor, and capital) to create and manage business ventures. Entrepreneurs are responsible for organizing, coordinating, and taking risks in the production process. They identify opportunities, innovate, make decisions, and allocate resources to maximize productivity and generate profits.

These four factors of production are interdependent and work together in the production process. The combination and efficient utilization of these factors determine the efficiency, productivity, and output of the economy. The availability, quality, and productivity of factors of production can be influenced by various factors such as technology, education, infrastructure, government policies, and natural conditions.

It’s worth noting that some economists propose additional factors of production, such as information or knowledge, which is considered a valuable input in the modern economy. However, the traditional classification of factors of production remains the most widely recognized framework for understanding the essential resources required in the production process.


1. Availability of capital to a producer: The availability of capital, both financial and physical, is crucial in determining the volume of production. Sufficient capital allows producers to invest in machinery, equipment, infrastructure, and other resources necessary for production. Adequate funding enables businesses to expand operations, increase capacity, and meet growing demand, resulting in higher production volumes.

2. Availability of raw materials: The availability and accessibility of raw materials are key factors influencing production volume. A reliable and sufficient supply of raw materials ensures uninterrupted production. Producers must have access to the necessary inputs at competitive prices to maintain or increase production levels. Raw material scarcity or disruptions in the supply chain can hamper production and limit output.

3. Level of efficiency in management: Efficient management practices play a significant role in determining the volume of production. Effective management ensures optimal utilization of resources, streamlined processes, and cost control. Efficient production planning, inventory management, quality control, and workforce management contribute to higher productivity and increased production levels.

4. Size of the market: The size of the market and the level of demand influence the volume of production. A larger market with higher demand potential provides an incentive for producers to increase production to meet customer needs. Market size also affects economies of scale, as larger production volumes often lead to lower production costs, making it more profitable to produce at higher levels.

5. Efficiency of other factors of production: The efficiency of factors such as land, labor, and entrepreneurship influences production volume. Productive and skilled labor, well-utilized land resources, and effective entrepreneurial decision-making contribute to higher production levels. Efficient utilization of these factors enhances productivity, reduces costs, and promotes increased production output.

6. High level of technology: Technological advancements have a significant impact on production volume. Access to advanced technologies, automation, and machinery can greatly enhance productivity and output. Improved technology enables faster production processes, higher precision, better quality control, and increased efficiency, leading to higher production volumes.

7. Nature of the product: The characteristics of the product, such as complexity, perishability, or customization requirements, can influence production volume. Complex products or those with intricate production processes may have lower production volumes due to longer manufacturing times or specialized skills required. Perishable goods may require production to align with demand to avoid waste. Conversely, standardized or easily producible goods may have higher production volumes.

These factors interact with each other and are influenced by external factors such as government regulations, market conditions, infrastructure, and technological advancements. The interplay of these factors determines the volume of production and plays a critical role in shaping the overall economic activity and output of an industry or economy.


1. Ensuring availability of goods and services: Production is essential for creating and making goods and services available to satisfy human needs and wants. Without production, there would be a lack of essential goods and services required for everyday life, such as food, clothing, housing, healthcare, and transportation. Production ensures the availability of these necessities and a wide range of other goods and services in the market.

2. Improving the standard of living: Production plays a vital role in improving the standard of living for individuals and society as a whole. Increased production leads to a greater supply of goods and services, which can contribute to improved quality of life. Higher production volumes can result in lower prices, making goods and services more affordable and accessible to a larger portion of the population.

3. Providing employment opportunities: Production creates job opportunities and contributes to economic growth. When production increases, more workers are needed to operate machinery, manage processes, and provide support services. Employment opportunities generated by production help alleviate unemployment, reduce poverty, and provide individuals with a means to earn income and support themselves and their families.

4. Enhancing wealth increment: Production is a key driver of economic growth and wealth creation. When production levels rise, businesses can generate higher revenues and profits. Increased production also leads to higher incomes for workers, business owners, and investors. The accumulation of wealth through production contributes to economic development, investment, and the overall prosperity of individuals and the nation.

5. Boosting export potential: Production contributes to a country’s export potential and international trade. By producing goods and services that are in demand globally, countries can earn foreign exchange through exports. Increased production and export levels can help improve a nation’s balance of trade, strengthen its economy, and foster economic relationships with other countries.

6. Acquisition of skills: Production provides opportunities for individuals to acquire and develop various skills. As production processes evolve and technology advances, workers gain experience and expertise in operating machinery, utilizing new technologies, and improving productivity. This acquisition of skills enhances employability, promotes innovation, and contributes to the overall growth and competitiveness of industries.

7. Generating income for the government: Production generates income in the form of taxes and other government revenues. As production levels increase, tax revenues from businesses and individuals also tend to rise. Governments utilize these funds to finance public services and infrastructure development, including education, healthcare, transportation, and public safety. Income generated from production plays a crucial role in funding government programs and promoting societal well-being.

8. Economic growth and development: Production is a key driver of economic growth and development. Increased production levels lead to higher gross domestic product (GDP) and contribute to economic expansion. When production grows consistently over time, it can lead to improved infrastructure, technological advancements, and increased investment in research and development, fostering long-term economic progress.

9. Innovation and technological progress: Production encourages innovation and technological advancements. As businesses strive to improve their production processes and create more efficient and high-quality goods and services, they invest in research and development, leading to innovation. Technological progress resulting from production can lead to new inventions, improved production methods, and the development of new industries, driving economic growth and competitiveness.

10. Social stability and well-being: Production contributes to social stability and well-being by creating economic opportunities, reducing poverty, and enhancing overall societal welfare. It provides individuals and communities with the means to access essential goods and services, improving their quality of life. Sustainable production practices that prioritize environmental and social responsibility also contribute to the well-being of future generations and the preservation of natural resources.

11. Self-sufficiency and national security: A robust production base promotes self-sufficiency and reduces dependence on foreign sources for essential goods and services. By producing domestically, countries can ensure a stable supply of critical goods, reduce vulnerability to disruptions in global supply chains, and enhance national security. Domestic production of strategic industries, such as defense or healthcare, helps maintain sovereignty and safeguards vital national interests.

12. Poverty alleviation and social mobility: Production plays a crucial role in poverty alleviation and social mobility. By generating employment opportunities, production enables individuals to earn income, escape poverty, and improve their socioeconomic status. It provides pathways for upward mobility, empowering individuals and communities to achieve economic independence and better living standards.

13. Environmental sustainability: The importance of production also lies in promoting environmental sustainability. Sustainable production practices, such as resource efficiency, waste reduction, and the use of renewable energy sources, help mitigate environmental degradation and minimize the negative impact on ecosystems. Environmentally conscious production contributes to the conservation of natural resources, reduces pollution, and supports the transition toward a more sustainable and resilient economy.

In summary, production is of paramount importance as it ensures the availability of goods and services, improves living standards, creates employment opportunities, enhances wealth increment, boosts export potential, facilitates skill acquisition, and generates income for the government. These factors collectively contribute to economic growth, social development, and the well-being of individuals and societies.

Read also:

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