In the United States, there are several types of agriculture that are practiced. Here are some of the major types:

1. Crop Farming: This includes the cultivation of various crops such as corn, soybeans, wheat, cotton, rice, fruits, vegetables, and nuts. Crop farming is widespread across different regions of the country and involves both large-scale commercial farms and smaller family-owned operations.

2. Livestock Farming: Livestock farming involves the raising of animals for various purposes, including meat, milk, eggs, and fiber. The main types of livestock farming in the U.S. include beef cattle, dairy farming, poultry farming (chickens, turkeys), hog farming, and sheep farming.

3. Dairy Farming: This type of farming focuses specifically on the production of milk and dairy products. Dairy farms are found throughout the country, with major dairy-producing states including California, Wisconsin, New York, and Pennsylvania.

4. Organic Farming: Organic farming involves the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock without the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, or genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Organic farming practices prioritize environmental sustainability and animal welfare.

5. Aquaculture: Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, shellfish, and aquatic plants. It includes activities like fish farming, oyster farming, shrimp farming, and the cultivation of seaweed. Aquaculture is practiced in coastal regions as well as inland areas with suitable water resources.

6. Hydroponics and Vertical Farming: These innovative farming methods involve growing plants without soil, typically in a controlled indoor environment. Hydroponics uses nutrient-rich water solutions, while vertical farming maximizes space by growing crops vertically in stacked layers or towers. These techniques are gaining popularity for their potential to increase food production in urban areas.

7. Agribusiness and Agroindustry: These terms refer to large-scale commercial agricultural operations, including food processing, packaging, distribution, and marketing. Agribusiness encompasses a wide range of activities related to agriculture, from seed production and crop protection to food manufacturing and retail.

8. Specialty Crop Farming: This type of farming focuses on specific high-value crops such as fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices, and niche products. Specialty crops are often grown in specific regions with favorable climate and soil conditions, and they cater to specific consumer demands and niche markets.

9. Sustainable and Regenerative Agriculture: These approaches prioritize environmental stewardship, soil health, and biodiversity conservation. They aim to minimize the negative impacts of agriculture on natural resources and ecosystems, using practices like conservation tillage, cover cropping, crop rotation, and integrated pest management.

10. Agroforestry: Agroforestry combines agriculture with forestry practices, integrating trees or shrubs into agricultural systems. It offers benefits such as improved soil fertility, windbreaks, shade, and additional income through timber or non-timber forest products.

11. Urban Agriculture: Urban agriculture refers to the cultivation of crops and rearing of animals within urban areas. It includes rooftop gardens, community gardens, hydroponics in urban settings, and even small-scale livestock farming in cities. Urban agriculture helps promote local food production, community engagement, and green spaces in cities.

12. Vineyards and Wineries: The United States is known for its wine production, with vineyards and wineries spread across various states. Grapes are cultivated specifically for wine production, and wineries process and ferment the grapes into wine. Popular wine-producing regions include California, Oregon, Washington, and New York.

13. Tobacco Farming: Although tobacco farming has declined in recent years due to health concerns, it remains a significant agricultural activity in some states. Tobacco is primarily grown in the southeastern United States, such as North Carolina, Kentucky, and Virginia.

14. Sugar Beet Farming: Sugar beets are an important crop for sugar production. They are primarily grown in states like Minnesota, North Dakota, Idaho, and Michigan. The beets are processed to extract sugar for various food and beverage products.

15. Christmas Tree Farms: Christmas tree farming involves the cultivation of evergreen trees, such as pine, fir, or spruce, specifically for use as Christmas trees. These farms are commonly found in states like Oregon, North Carolina, Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Washington.

16. Agri-tourism: Agri-tourism combines agricultural activities with tourism, offering visitors a chance to experience and learn about farming practices. It can include activities like farm tours, pick-your-own fruit operations, corn mazes, pumpkin patches, and farm-stay accommodations.

These are just a few more examples of the diverse types of agriculture found in the United States. The agricultural landscape is continually evolving as new technologies, sustainable practices, and market demands shape the industry.

It’s important to note that these types of agriculture are not mutually exclusive, and many farmers may engage in multiple practices depending on their location, resources, market demand, and personal preferences.


Subsistence agriculture is defined as the type of agriculture which is concerned with the production of food (cultivation of crops and rearing of animals) by the farmer to feed himself and his family only. It is also known as peasant farming because it is practiced by poor farmers. It is done on a small scale and involves the use of crude tools (e.g. cutlass, hoe, axe, etc.) only.

Subsistence agriculture is a traditional and self-sustaining farming system where the primary goal is to produce enough food to meet the basic needs of the farmer and their family. The term “subsistence” refers to the fact that agricultural activities are primarily focused on subsisting or surviving rather than generating a surplus for commercial purposes.

8 Characteristics of Subsistence Agriculture

1. Scale and Scope: Subsistence agriculture is typically practiced on a small scale, often on family-owned or community-owned land. The size of the farm is generally limited to what can be managed by the farmer and their family members.

2. Food Production: The main objective of subsistence agriculture is to produce enough food to fulfill the dietary requirements of the household. Farmers grow a variety of crops and may also rear livestock for meat, milk, eggs, or other animal products.

3. Limited Resources: Subsistence farmers usually have limited access to resources such as land, capital, modern machinery, and technology. As a result, they rely on manual labor and use basic tools like cutlasses, hoes, axes, and sickles for cultivation and harvesting.

4. Traditional Farming Methods: Subsistence agriculture often relies on traditional farming techniques that have been passed down through generations. Farmers may employ practices such as shifting cultivation, intercropping, crop rotation, and the use of natural fertilizers like animal manure or compost.

5. Diversity of Crops: Subsistence farmers tend to cultivate a diverse range of crops suited to their local climate and soil conditions. This helps reduce the risk of crop failure due to pests, diseases, or adverse weather events. Common subsistence crops include grains (rice, maize, millet), tubers (yam, cassava, sweet potato), legumes, vegetables, and fruits.

6. Self-Consumption: The majority, if not all, of the agricultural produce is consumed by the farming household. Surplus production, if any, may be shared within the community or used for barter or local trade.

7. Limited Market Orientation: Subsistence farmers generally have minimal engagement with formal markets. Their focus is primarily on meeting their own food needs rather than generating income through commercial sales.

8. Dependency on Nature: Subsistence agriculture is heavily reliant on natural factors such as rainfall, temperature, and soil fertility. Farmers are vulnerable to fluctuations in weather patterns and environmental conditions, which can significantly impact crop yields and food security.

Subsistence agriculture is often prevalent in rural and economically disadvantaged areas, where farmers lack access to modern technologies, infrastructure, and market opportunities. While it fulfills immediate food requirements, it can be susceptible to challenges such as low productivity, limited income generation, and vulnerability to climate change.


Commercial agriculture, also known as agribusiness or commercial farming, is an agricultural practice that focuses on producing crops and livestock in large quantities for sale in the market. Unlike subsistence agriculture, which primarily aims to meet the needs of the farmer’s own household, commercial agriculture is driven by profit and operates on a larger scale.

16 Characteristics of Commercial Agriculture:

1. Scale and Intensification: Commercial agriculture involves large-scale farming operations that require extensive land, capital, and resources. Farms can range from several hundred to thousands of acres in size. The focus is on maximizing production efficiency and yields through intensified cultivation and the use of modern technologies.

2. Cash Crop Production: Commercial farmers primarily grow cash crops, which are crops that are cultivated for sale rather than for direct consumption by the farmer’s household. Common cash crops include grains (wheat, corn, rice), oilseeds (soybeans, sunflowers), fiber crops (cotton, hemp), fruits, vegetables, and various specialty crops like coffee, cocoa, and tobacco.

3. Specialization and Monoculture: Commercial agriculture often involves specialization in specific crops or livestock. Farmers choose crops or livestock that are well-suited to the local climate and market demand. Monoculture, the practice of growing a single crop on a large scale, is common in commercial agriculture to streamline production, simplify management, and optimize economies of scale.

4. Modern Farming Techniques and Technology: Commercial farmers employ advanced farming techniques and technologies to improve productivity and efficiency. This includes the use of complex machinery such as tractors, combine harvesters, planters, irrigation systems, and precision agriculture tools. Agrochemicals like fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides are also frequently used to manage pests, weeds, and soil fertility.

5. Capital Investment: Commercial agriculture requires significant capital investment for land acquisition, infrastructure development, machinery purchase, and operational expenses. Commercial farmers often have access to financial resources, enabling them to invest in advanced technologies, research and development, and value-added processing facilities.

6. Market Orientation: The primary focus of commercial agriculture is to produce agricultural products for sale in domestic or international markets. Commercial farmers aim to meet market demand, secure profitable prices, and achieve economies of scale. They may engage in contract farming, supply chains, or direct marketing to buyers, processors, or distributors.

7. Agribusiness Integration: Commercial agriculture is often associated with various components of the agribusiness sector. This includes food processing, packaging, storage, transportation, distribution, and marketing. Agribusiness enterprises collaborate with commercial farmers to add value to agricultural products and facilitate their movement from farm to consumer.

8. Technological Innovation: Commercial agriculture is influenced by ongoing technological advancements and innovations. This includes the adoption of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) to improve crop traits, precision farming techniques using satellite imagery and data analytics, and the development of sustainable farming practices to minimize environmental impact.

9. Agro-industrial Complex: Commercial agriculture is often linked to the agro-industrial complex, which encompasses the various industries involved in agricultural production, processing, and distribution. This complex includes sectors such as seed and agrochemical companies, equipment manufacturers, food processors, wholesalers, and retailers. The integration of these industries facilitates the efficient movement of agricultural products from farm to consumer.

10. Large-Scale Production: Commercial agriculture focuses on large-scale production to meet the demands of a broader market. This allows for economies of scale, where increased production results in lower costs per unit. Large-scale commercial farms often have higher mechanization levels and employ more labor-saving technologies to maximize efficiency.

11. Export-oriented Agriculture: Commercial agriculture plays a significant role in the export of agricultural products. The United States is a major exporter of various crops and livestock products, including grains, soybeans, beef, pork, poultry, and processed foods. Commercial farmers target international markets and adapt their production to meet the quality and safety standards of importing countries.

12. Contract Farming: Contract farming is a common arrangement in commercial agriculture, particularly for certain crops like tobacco, coffee, or fruits. In contract farming, farmers enter into agreements with agribusiness companies or processors to produce specific crops or livestock according to predetermined terms and conditions. This provides farmers with a guaranteed market and price, while companies secure a stable supply of raw materials.

13. Technological Advancements: Commercial agriculture benefits from ongoing advancements in agricultural technology and research. These include genetic engineering, biotechnology, precision agriculture, and data-driven decision-making. Technology aids in improving crop varieties, increasing yields, optimizing resource use, and reducing environmental impacts.

14. Supply Chain Management: Commercial agriculture involves efficient supply chain management to ensure the timely delivery of products from farm to consumer. This includes activities such as storage, transportation, quality control, and product distribution. Supply chain management aims to minimize post-harvest losses, maintain product quality, and respond to market demand effectively.

15. Farm Financial Management: Commercial farmers need strong financial management skills to effectively manage their operations. This includes budgeting, cost analysis, risk management, access to credit, and strategic planning. They must navigate factors such as market price fluctuations, input costs, weather-related risks, and changing regulations.

16. Environmental Concerns and Sustainability: As commercial agriculture operates on a larger scale, it can have significant environmental impacts. Concerns include soil erosion, water pollution, habitat loss, and greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainable farming practices, such as conservation tillage, crop rotation, integrated pest management, and precision irrigation, are increasingly adopted to mitigate these impacts and ensure long-term environmental sustainability.

Commercial agriculture is a dynamic sector that continuously adapts to market demands, technological advancements, and sustainability imperatives. Its scale, technological integration, and market orientation contribute to the availability of diverse agricultural products, global food security, and economic development.

While commercial agriculture has the potential for higher profits and increased food production, it can also face challenges such as market volatility, price fluctuations, input cost fluctuations, environmental concerns, and social implications related to land concentration and labor displacement. Sustainable and responsible practices are increasingly emphasized to ensure long-term profitability and environmental stewardship in commercial agriculture.


1. Produce mainly for the family with little or no excess.  Products are principally for sale
2. Practiced on small areas of land. Practiced on large areas of land.
3. Family labor is used Skilled and mechanized labor is employed
4. Traditional management is employed. Modern or scientific management is employed.
5. Production is on a small scale Production is on a large scale
6. Cost of production is low. The cost of production is high.
7. Does not need an organized market for the sales of its products. Need a well-organized market for sales of its products.
8. Operation results in low environmental degradation. Operation results in high environmental degradation.
9. Provide direct employment for many citizens. Skilled people are employed for different tasks.
10. Engages in mixed-cropping. Often engages in mono-cropping.
11. No specialization, since the farmer produces different types of crops and rears different classes of farm animals. Farmer specializes in the production of fewer crops and animal rearing.


12. Has no access to credit facilities. Has access to credit facilities.

Read also:

CROPS: Classification, Life Cycle, Morphology & Uses





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